History of Logic from Aristotle to Gödel (www.historyoflogic.com)

by Raul Corazzon | e-mail: rc@ontology.co

Selected Bibliography on the Early Stoic Logicians: Zeno, Cleanthes, Chrysippus

Contents of this Section

Zeno of Citium


  1. Pearson Alfred Chilton. 1891. The Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes. London: C. J. Clay & Sons.

  2. Zeno et Zenonis discipuli. Edited by Arnim Hans Friedrich August von. Stuttgart: Teubner 1905.

    Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta: Vol. I.


  1. Adorno, Francesco. 1957. "Sul Significato Del Termine Hyparchon in Zenone Stoico." Parola del Passato no. 12:362-374.

  2. ———. 1959. "Sul Significato Del Termine Mnemonichon in Zenone Stoico." Parola del Passato no. 14.

  3. ———. 1966. "I Fondamenti Della Logica in Zenone Stoico." In Studi Sul Pensiero Greco, 121-178. Firenze: Sansoni.

  4. Brinkmann, Klaus. 1997. "Zénon, Matérialiste Et Nominaliste?" Diotima no. 25:48-55.

    "The article questions the standard perception of Stoic philosophy as materialist and nominalist in nature. Rather than being materialistic, Stoic ontology represents a consistent hylemorphism in which nothing exists without matter and which is intended to circumvent and the matter-form dualism in Aristotle's metaphysics and to avoid Aristotle's epistemological problem of the unknowability of matter. Similarly, Stoic semantics is not entirely nominalistic. Although Stoic universals ("ennoemata", "ennoiai") are "post rem", unlike word or sentence meanings ("lekta") they are nonmental noematic or conceptual structures."

  5. Döring, August. 1902. "Zeno, Der Gründer Der Stoa." Preussische Jahrbücher no. 107:213-242.

  6. Fritz, Kurt von. 1972. "Zenon Von Kition." In Pauly's Real-Encyclopädie. Band 10 A, 83-121.

  7. Graeser, Andreas. 1975. Zenon Von Kition. Positionen Und Probleme. Berlin: de Gruyter.

    See in particular: Teil I. Zur Logik, pp. 8-81.

    Review by Jaap Mansfeld: Zeno of Citium. Critical observations on a recent study, Mnemosyne, 31, 1978, pp. 134-178.

  8. Hunt, Harold Arthur Kinross. 1976. "A Physical Interpretation of the Universe. The Doctrines of Zeno the Stoic." In. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.

  9. Ieorodiakonou, Katerina. 2002. "Zeno's Arguments." In Zeno of Citium and His Legacy. The Philosophy of Zeno, edited by Scaltsas, Theodore and Mason, Andrew S., 81-112. Larnaca: The Municipality of Larnaca.

  10. Mansfeld, Jaap. 1978. "Zeno of Citium: Critical Observations on a Recent Study." Mnemosyne no. 31:134-178.

    Critical review of: A. Graeser, Zenon von Kition. Positionen und Probleme.

  11. ———. 2002. "Zeno on the Unity of Philosophy." In Zeno of Citium and His Legacy. The Philosophy of Zeno, edited by Scaltsas, Theodore and Mason, Andrew S. Larnaca: The Municipality of Larnaca.

    "The formula "the elements of logos" in the Zeno quotation by Epictetus at Arrian, Diss. 4.8.12 need not, pace e.g. von Arnim, pertain to the parts of speech, but more probably means the elements, i.e. primary theorems of philosophical theory, or doctrine. Theory moreover should become internalized to the soul and "lived": philosophy is also the so-called "art of life". These theorems are to be distinguished but should reciprocally entail each other. Philosophy according to Zeno is both tripartite and one, and tripartite especially in that its parts (and subparts) cannot be transferred simultaneously: of necessity these have to taught and learned one after the other."

  12. Pachet, Pierre. 1975. "La Deixis Selon Zénon Et Chrysippe." Phronesis.A Journal for Ancient Philosophy no. 20:241-246.

  13. Pohlenz, Max. 1938. "Zenon Und Chrysipp." Akademie der Wissenschaften in Go?ttingen.Philologisch-Historische Klasse.Nachrichten:173-210.

    Neue Folge. Fachgruppe 1. Altertumswissenschaften Bd. 2, Nr. 9.

  14. ———. 1940. "Grundfragen Der Stoischen Philosophie." Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Go?ttingen.Philologisch-Historische Klasse:1-122.

    Folge 1, Nr. 26.

  15. Rist, John M. 2006. "Zeno and the Origins of Stoic Logic." In Les Stoïciens Et Leur Logique, edited by Brunschwig, Jacques, 13-28. Paris: Vrin.

    Actes du Colloque de Chantilly 18-22 septembre 1976.

    Première édition 1978; deuxième édition, revue, augmentée et mise à jour (reproduit la pagination de l'édition originale).

    "I I have attempted to sketch what Zeno left behind for Chrysippus to develop (63). Cleanthes has been mentionned in passing, and his contributions are, so far as we can see, largely limited to additional work of the same general sort as his master. He too took an interest in the work of Diodorus Cronus, and as we have seen, is the first recorded Stoic to have discussed the notorious Master Argument and its theory about the possible and the necessary. Probably some form of a theory of lekta may be ascribed to him, as Clement of Alexandria tells us. But how much he said on the topic is beyond our ken; probably not very much. For I am personally even Inclined to think that it is more likely to have been Chrysippus who formally added lekta to the list of incorporeals, though such an addition might be implicit in the thought of anyone who postulated that there are "non-existents": subjects of meaningful discourse which cannot be put in category One, the category of what exists. For it is hard to see how that which does not exist can be corporeal. Perhaps it was from some such considerations that the notion of "meaning" itself arose, as well as the thesis that words may have a sense but no reference." p. 27

    "Résumé. Avant le développement systématique que Chrysippe donna à la logique stoicienne, peut-on préciser l'eeuvre de Zénon dans ce domaine? Souhaitant donne à l'idée de nature un contenu plus positif que ne le faisait la morale cynique, il devait rencontrer l'hypothèque éléatique; il fut l'élève et le condisciple de plusieurs dialecticiens mégariques (bien qu'on ne lui attribue pas de position dans le problème du Dominateur et des possibles). Il a dû s'intéresser aussi à la théorie des signes et au problème du critère de validité du conditionnel, sur lequel il adopte la position de Philon (que Chrysippe abandonnera sous la pression des critiques de Diodore). Ce problème est lié à celui de la nature du sage; en reconnaissant dans l'aptitude à inférer un aspect fondamental de la nature humaine, Zénon accélérait sa rupture avec le cynisme. Des Mégariques, Zénon a hérité certaines divergences de vocabulaire et de fond avec la logique aristotélicienne; de Stilpon, notamment, il peut avoir reçu l'idée du primat de l'individuel, contre les Formes platoniciennes et peut-être aussi contre les universaux aristotéliciens. Parmi les domaines que Zénon n'a apparemment pas touchés, on peut compter: la théorie des signifiants et des signifiés; peut-être, la notion même du lekton (qui aurait été rajouté, après Zénon, aux trois incorporels primitifs, nés en terrain physique), et du même coup la classification systématique des lekta;enfin, la théorie des indémontrables. En matière de théorie de la connaissance, c'est en revanche Zénon qui a jeté les bases de la doctrine stoïcienne; le problème était urgent, après le platonisme et le pyrrhonisme, comme le démontre l'attitude contemporaine d'Épicure.

    Le Professeur Rist n'a pas souhaité rédiger de compléments pour la deuxième édition. (Note de l' éditeur)" pp. 27-28.

    (63) Ibid. p. 153-154.

  16. Scaltsas, Theodore, and Mason, Andrew S., eds. 2002. The Philosophy of Zeno. Zeno of Citium and His Legacy. Larnaca: The Municipality of Larnaca.

  17. Schofield, Malcolm. 1983. "The Syllogisms of Zeno of Citium." Phronesis.A Journal for Ancient Philosophy no. 28:31-58.

  18. ———. 2002. "Cicero, Zeno of Citium, and the Vocabulary of Philosophy." In Le Style De La Pensée. Recueil De Textes En Hommage À Jacques Brunschwig, edited by Canto-Sperber, Monique and Pierre, Pellegrin, 412-428. Paris: Belles Lettres.

  19. Sedley, David. 2002. "Zeno's Definition of Phantasia Kataleptike." In Zeno of Citium and His Legacy. The Philosophy of Zeno, edited by Scaltsas, Theodore and Mason, Andrew S., 133-154. Larnaca: The Municipality of Larnaca.

  20. Stroux, Leonhard. 1965. Vergleich Und Metapher in Der Lehre Des Zenon Von Kition. Berlin: Ernst-Reuter-Gesellschaft.

Cleanthes of Assos


  1. Watanabe Albert Tohru. 1988. "Cleanthes Fragments: text and commentary".

    Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation available at ProQuest Dissertation Express n. AAT 8908885.

  2. Thom Johan Carl. 2005.Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

    Text, translation, and commentary.


  1. Barreau, Hervé. 2006. "Cléanthe Et Chrysippe Face Au Maître-Argument De Diodore." In Les Stoiciens Et Leur Logique, edited by Brunschwig, Jacques, 283-301. Paris: Vrin.

    Deuxième édition revue, augmentée et mise a jour (Première edition 1978, pp. 21-40).

  2. Cambronne, Patrice. 1998. "L'universel & Le Singulier: L 'Hymne À Zeus De Cléanthe: Notes De Lecture." Revues des études anciennes no. 100:89-114.

  3. Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile. 1982. "Un Syllogisme Stoïcien Sur La Loi Dans La Doxographie De Diogène Le Cynique À Propos De Diogène Laërce Vi 72." Rheinisches Museum no. 215:214-240.

    "Le syllogisme sur la loi était un syllogisme stoïcien attribué à Diogène le Cynique dans la doxographie que lui consacre Diogène Laërce. Il n'est que l'écho d'un ensemble de syllogismes sur la loi et la cité dont l'auteur est vraisemblablement Cléanthe. La source de Diogène Laërce pourrait être Apollodore de Séleucie."

  4. Guérard, Christian. 1994. "Cléanthe D'assos." In Dictionnaire Des Philosophes Antiques, edited by Goulet, Richard, 406-415.

    Vol. II

  5. Meijer, Pieter Ane. 2008. Stoic Theology. Proofs for the Existence of the Cosmic God and of the Traditional Gods. Including a Commentary on Cleanthes' Hymn on Zeus. Delft: Eburon.

  6. Thom, Johan C. 2005. Cleanthes' Hym to Zeus. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

    Text, translation and commentary.

    "Although the Hymn to Zeus is often cited as one of the most important documents of early Stoic philosophy -- indeed the only text to survive more or less intact -- it has not yet received a detailed treatment in a monograph by itself. Besides its indubitable philosophical interest, the poem also provides crucial evidence for the way philosophy came to function as a form of religion from the Hellenistic period onwards. The present study strives to pay due attention to the most relevant factors which make this poem exceptional: the philosophical and moral ideas conveyed in poetic form, the religious underpinning given to Stoicism, and the intricate interaction with the preceding literary tradition. Cleanthes offers his own philosophical answer to the human moral dilemma in terms of the Greek cultural heritage; the Hymn to Zeus should therefore not simply be interpreted against the background of Stoicism in general." (From the Preface).

  7. Verbeke, Gérard. 1949. Kleanthes Van Assos. Brussel: Paleis der Academiën.

    Written in Dutch.

Chrysippus of Soli


  1. Chrysippi Fragmenta logica et physica. Edited by Arnim Hans Friedrich August von. Stuttgart: Teubner 1903.

    Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta: Vol. II.

  2. Crönert Wilhelm, "Die Logika Zetemata des Chrysippus und die übrigen Papyri logischen Inhalts aus der herculanensischen Bibliothek," Hermes 36: 548-579 (1901).

    Traduzione italiana di Enrico Livrea in: W. Crönert - Studi Ercolanesi - Napoli, Morano, 1975 pp. 63-101

  3. Del Mastro Gianluca, "Il PHerc. 1380: Crisippo, Opera logica," Cronache Ercolanesi 35: 61-70 (2005).

    "Analisi paleografica di PHerc. 1380 e ricostruzione della subscriptio: si tratta dell'opera "Degli elementi del discorso e della frase" di Crisippo, di argomento logico-dialettico, affine per tema al trattato sulle ambiguità del linguaggio tramandato in PHerc. 307."

  4. Marrone Livia, "Le Questioni logiche di Crisippo (PHerc. 307)," Cronache Ercolanesi 27: 83-100 (1997).

    Critical edition and Italian translation of Chrysippus' work Logika zetemata (Investigations in logic) found in the Herculaneum Papyrus 307.

  5. Marrone Livia, "Nuove letture nel PHerc. 307 (Questioni Logiche di Crisippo)," Cronache Ercolanesi 12: 13-18 (1982).

  6. Chrysippe. Oeuvre philosophique. Paris: Les Belles Lettres 2004.

    Édition bilingue (textes grecs et latins, traduction française). Textes traduits et commentés par Richard Dufour.

    Table des matières.

    Tome I: Remerciements IX; Avant-propos XI; Introduction XV; Avertissement LIII; Sur la vie de Chrysippe et témoignages sur ses écrits, n. 1-31 p. 1; Prolégomènes à la philosophie, n. 32-42 p. 43;

    PREMIÈRE PARTIE. LA LOGIQUE (n. 43-51) p. 57.

    Chapitre I. La doctrine de la connaissance (n. 52-112) p. 69; Chapitre II. La dialectique (n. 113-295) p. 141; Chapitre III. La Rhétorique (n. 296-306) p. 391;


    Chapitre I. Les doctrines fondamentales de la physique (n. 307-535) p. 403;

    Liste des ouvrages de Chrysippe 661; Glossaire 665; Chronologie des écoles philosophiques 673; Bibliographie 675-685.

    Tome II: Chapitre II. sur le monde (n. 536-647) p. 9; Chapitre III. Des corps célestes et des phénomènes atmosphériques (n. 648-707) p. 109; Chapitre IV: Des animaux et des plantes (n. 708-772) p. 157; Chapitre V. De l'âme humaine (n. 773-913) p. 206; Chapitre VI. Sur le destin (n. 914-1014) p. 355; Chapitre VII. Sur la nature des dieux (n. 1015-1110) p. 485; Chapitre VIII. Sur la providence et la nature artiste (n. 1111-1166) p. 567; Chapitre IX. Sur la divination (n. 1167-1195) p. 621; Repères chronologiques des citateurs 649; Bibliographie des citateurs 651; Index des notions 671; Index des passages cités 679; Index des personnages 705; Concordances: ce recueil-Long & Sedley 717; Concordances: ce recueil-SVF 719; Concordances: Long & Sedley-ce recueil 729; Concordances: SVF-ce recueil 733-743.


  1. Barnes, Jonathan. 1984. "The Logical Investigations of Chrysippus." Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin.Jahrbuch:19-29.

  2. ———. 1985. "Piqana Sunhmmena." Elenchos.Rivista di Studi sul Pensiero Antico no. 6:453-467.

  3. ———. 1993. "Galen and the Utility of Logic." In Galen Und Das Hellenistische Erbe, edited by Jutta, Kollesch and Nickel, Diethard, 33-52. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.

  4. ———. 1996. "The Catalogue of Chrysippus' Logical Works." In Polyhistor. Studies in the History and Historiography of Ancient Philosophy Presented to Jaap Mansfeld on His Sixtieth Birthday, edited by Algra, Keimpe, Horst, Pieter van der and Runia, David, 169-184. Leiden: Brill.

    The catalogue of the works of Chrysippus preserved by Diogenes Laertius (7, 189 ff.) may derive from a handbook by Chrysippus himself ; this makes it a fairly reliable guide to his thought.

  5. Barreau, Hervé. 2006. "Cléanthe Et Chrysippe Face Au Maître-Argument De Diodore." In Les Stoiciens Et Leur Logique, edited by Jacques, Brunschwig, 283-301. Paris: Vrin.

    Deuxième édition revue, augmentée et mise a jour (Première edition 1978, pp. 21-40).

  6. Bobzien, Susanne. 1993. "Chrysippus' Modal Logic and Its Relation to Philo and Diodorus." In Dialektiker Und Stoiker. Zur Logik Der Stoa Und Ihrer Vorläufer, edited by Döring, Klaus and Ebert, Theodor, 63-84. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.

  7. ———. 2002. "Chrysippus and the Epistemic Theory of Vagueness." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society no. 102:217-238.

  8. ———. 2011. "The Combinatorics of Stoic Conjunction: Hipparchus Refuted, Chrysippus Vindicated." Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy no. 40:157-188.

  9. Bréhier, Émile. 1951. Chrysippe Et L'ancien Stoïcisme. Paris: Presses Universitarires de France.

    Première édtion: Paris, Alcan, 1910

  10. Brunschwig, Jacques. 1991. "On a Book-Title by Chrysippus: "On the Fact That the Ancients Admitted Dialectic Along with Demonstrations"." In Aristotle and the Later Tradition, edited by Blumenthal, Henry and Robinson, Howard, 81-95. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    "On what can be inferred from the title and from its place in the list of Chrysippus' works at Diogenes Laertius 7, 201; on its relevance to Plutarch's criticism of Stoic consistency at Stoic rep. 1035a."

  11. Burke, Michael B. 1994. "Dion and Theon: An Essentialist Solution to an Ancient Puzzle." Journal of Philosophy no. 91:129-139.

    "The puzzle of Dion and Theon was pondered more than 2000 years ago by the Stoic philosopher Chrysippus. Puzzles of the same type engage identity theorists today. After surveying the many solutions currently on offer, and noting their drawbacks, this article presents a new solution, one that affirms the long- ignored position of Chrysippus, although not the reasoning by which he arrived at it. The solution employs (and assumes) the recently resurgent doctrine of Aristotelian Essentialism, which provides a hitherto unexploited resource for dealing with the full range of putative exceptions to the principle that different objects cannot simultaneously occupy the same place."

  12. Castagnoli, Luca. 2004. "Il Condizionale Crisippeo E Le Sue Interpretazioni Moderne." Elenchos.Rivista di Studi sul Pensiero Antico no. 25:353-395.

  13. ———. 2009. "Sunártesis Crisippea E Tesi Di Aristotele." In La Logica Nel Pensiero Antico, edited by Alessandrelli, Michele and Nasti de Vincentis, Mauro, 105-164. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

    "This paper aims at analysing the logic and truth-conditions of the Chrysippean conditional. In its first part some influential interpretations of sunártesis are examined, their shortcomings are disclosed, and two distinct possible versions of the truth-conditions of sunártesis are proposed and spelled out in outline. In the second part the question is investigated of whether the so-called Aristotle's thesis and Boethius' thesis can be regarded as genuine properties of the Chrysippean conditional, as some scholars have interestingly maintained. Textual evidence is exhibited suggesting that it is likely that such theses were valid in Stoic logic. Finally, the problem of how to reconcile the purported truth of these theses with some prima facie incompatible arguments attested by our sources is explored: some possible explanations for the alleged inconsistency are examined."

  14. Cavini, Walter. 1972. "I Sillogismi Ipotetici Del Papiro Parigino Attribuito a Crisippo." In Studi Classici in Onore Di Quintino Cataudella. Vol I, 39-43. Catania: Università di Catania. Facoltà di lettere e filosofia.

  15. ———. 1993. "Chrysippus on Speaking Truly and the Liar." In Dialektiker Und Stoiker. Zur Logik Der Stoa Und Ihrer Vorläufer, edited by Döring, Klaus and Ebert, Theodor, 85-109. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.

  16. Celluprica, Vincenza. 1977. "L'argomento Dominatore Di Diodoro Crono E Il Concetto Di Possibile in Crisippo." In Scuole Socratiche Minori E Filosofia Ellenistica, edited by Giannantoni, Gabriele, 55-73. Bologna: Il Mulino.

  17. Croenert, Wilhelm. 1901. "Die Logika Zetemata Des Chrysippos Und Die Übrigen Papyri Logischen Inhalts Aus Der Herculanensischen Bibliothek." Hermes no. 36:548-579.

    Traduzione italiana: W. Crönert, Studi Ercolanesi, Introduzione e traduzione di Enrico Livrea, Napoli, Morano, 1975, pp. 65-86.

  18. Del Mastro, Gianluca. 2007. "Un'opera Logica Di Crisippo Nel Pherc. 1380." In Proceedings of the 24th Congress of Papyrology. Helsinki, 1-7 August 2004, edited by Frösén, Jaakko, Purola, Tiina and Salmenkivi, Erja, 249-258. Helsinki: Societas Scientarum Fennica.

  19. Donini, Pierluigi. 1973. "Crisippo E La Nozione Del Possibile." Rivista di Filologia no. 101:333-351.

  20. Dorandi, Tiziano. 2005. "La Tradition Papyrologique Des Stoiciens." In Les Stoiciens, edited by Romeyer-Dherbey, Gilbert and Gourinat, Jean-Baptiste, 29-52. Paris: Vrin.

  21. Gould, Josiah. 1967. "Chrysippus: On the Criteria for the Truth of a Conditional Proposition." Phronesis.A Journal for Ancient Philosophy no. 12:156-161.

  22. ———. 1970. The Philosophy of Chrysippus. Leiden: Brill.

    See Chapter IV. Logic pp. 45-91.

  23. Goulet, Richard. 1994. "Chrysippe De Soles." In Dictionnaire Des Philosophes Antiques, edited by Goulet, Richard, 329-365.

    Vol. II.

  24. Hadot, Pierre. 1994. "Liste Commentée Des Oeuvres De Chrysippe (D. L. Vii 189-202)." In Dictionnaire Des Philosophes Antiques. Tome 2: De Babélyca D'argos À Dyscolius, edited by Goulet, Richard, 336-356. Paris: CNRS-Éditions.

  25. Hershbell, Jackson P. 1993. "Epictetus and Chrysippus." Illinois Classical Studies no. 18:139-146.

    "Chrysippus' works were read and commented on in Epictetus' school, and they influenced Epictetus' discussions of formal logic."

  26. Hunter, Graeme. 1994. "A Ciceronian Critique of Chrysippus." Apeiron no. 27:17-23.

    Analysis of Cicero's argument at De fato 6 against Chrysippus' doctrine about future contingency

  27. Ide, Harry A. 1992. "Chrysippus's Response to Diodorus's Master Argument." History and Philosophy of Logic no. 13:133-148.

    "Chrysippus claims that some propositions perish, including some true conditionals whose consequent is impossible and antecedent is possible, to which he appeals against Diodorus's Master Argument. Onthe standard interpretation, perished propositions lack truth values,and these conditionals are true at the same time as their antecedent sare possible and consequents impossible. But perished propositions are false, and Chrysipus's conditionals are true when their antecedent and consequent are possible, and false when their antecedent is possible and consequent impossible. The claim of the Master Argument that Chrysippus rejects, then, is stronger than usually supposed."

  28. Irigoin, Jean. 1990. "Chrysippe, Sur Les Propositions Négatives." In Mise En Page Et Mise En Texte Du Livre Manuscrit, edited by Martin, Henri Jean and Vezin, Jean, 34-36. Paris: Éditions du Cercle de la Librairie-Promodis.

    La disposition du texte dans le Papirus Paris 2 (= P. Louvre inv. 2326), fragment d'un ouvrage de logique attribué traditionnellement à Chrysippe.

  29. Leib, Ethan J. 2001. "On the Sorites: Toward a Better Understanding of Chrysippus." Ancient Philosophy no. 21:147-159.

    "The paper explores the logical paradox of the sorites and its scope. By examining the original sources in Diogenes, Sextus, and Cicero and contemporary commentators (Barnes and Burnyeat), and elaborating upon the context in which the paradox arose (the debate between the Stoics and the Skeptics), I hope to illuminate what the paradox can and cannot accomplish. By focusing on the dialogical nature of the original presentation of the paradox, I outline a better understanding than has been offered previously of the strategy that the Stoics deployed, under their leader Chrysippus, in dealing with the skeptical challenge."

  30. Malatesta, Michele. 1998. "On One Instance of the Chrysippean Syllogism of the Dog in Plato's Sophista 252e 1-8." Metalogicon no. 11:1-16.

  31. Marrone, Livia. 1984. "Il Problema Dei 'Singolari' E Dei 'Plurali' Nel Pherc. 307." In Atti Del Xvii Congresso Internazionale Di Papirologia, edited by Frösén, Jaakko, Purola, Tiina and Salmenkivi, Erja, 419-427. Napoli: Centro internazionale per lo studio dei papiri ercolanesi.

    Vol 2

  32. ———. 1984. "Proposizione E Predicato in Crisippo." Cronache Ercolanesi no. 14:136-146.

  33. ———. 1987. "Testi Stoici Ercolanesi." Cronache Ercolanesi no. 17:181-184.

  34. ———. 1987. "Testi Stoici Ercolanesi Ii." Cronache Ercolanesi no. 18:223-225.

  35. ———. 1988. "Il Mentitore Nel Pherc. 307 (Questioni Logiche Di Crisippo), I." In Proceedings of the Xviii International Congress of Papyrology. Athens 25-31 May 1986, edited by Mandilaras, Basil G., 271-276. Athens: Greek Payrological Society.

  36. ———. 1992. "L'ambiguità Verbale Nel Pherc. 307 (Questioni Logiche Di Crisippo)." In Proceedings of the Xix International Congress of Papyrology. Cairo 2-9 September 1989, edited by Mosallamy, Abd Alla Hassan el, 261-267. Cairo: Ain Shams University,.

    "Un nouvel examen des col. 4-14 de ce papyrus montre que cette oeuvre a bien, comme le veut le genre des zetemata, un caractère aporétique, présentant des propositions dans lesquelles le semainomenon n'est pas exprimé clairement. La variété et la vivacité de ce texte important pour notre connaissance de la dialectique des stoïciens traduit l'existence d'un milieu culturel riche en innovations et en provocations."

  37. ———. 1993. "Gnoseologia Stoica Nel Pherc 307." In Ercolano 1738-1988. 250 Anni Di Ricerca Archeologica., edited by Dell'Orto, Luisa Franchi, 339-341. Roma: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider.

    Atti del Convegno internazionale Ravello-Ercolano-Napoli-Pompei 30 ottobre-5 novembre 1988

  38. ———. 1999. "Logica Nei Papiri Ercolanesi." In Testimonianze Matematiche a Napoli, edited by Carbone, Luciano and Palladino, Franco, 153-163. Napoli: La Città del Sole.

    Atti del Convegno di Napoli, 19 marzo 1991.

  39. ———. 2000. "La Logica Degli Epicurei E Degli Stoici: Filodemo E Crisippo." Cronache Ercolanesi no. 30:111-118.

    "Profilo dei trattati filodemei di epistemologia, fondati sulla rielaborazione delle lezioni di Zenone Sidonio (PHerc. 1389, 1003, 671, 861, 1065), e di alcuni testi di logica stoica, con particolare attenzione alle "Questioni logiche" di Crisippo di Soli (PHerc. 1022, 307)."

  40. Mayet, Karin. 2010. Chrysipps Logik in Ciceros Philosophischen Schriften. Tübingen: Narr Verlag.

  41. Mignucci, Mario. 1983. "Alessandro Di Afrodisia E La Logica Modale Di Crisippo." In Atti Del Convegno Internazionale Di Storia Della Logica, edited by Abrusci, Michele, Casari, Ettore and Mugnai, Massino. Bologna: CLUEB.

  42. ———. 1993. "The Stoic Analysis of the Sorites." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society no. 93:231-245.

    "Chrysippus' solution of the sorites argument was in keeping with his general view of paradoxes; we must give up some of our common-sense beliefs, such as our belief in the validity of modus ponens."

  43. Moretti, Gabriella. 1990. Acutum Dicendi Genus. Brevità, Oscurità, Sottigliezze E Paradossi Nelle Tradizioni Retoriche Degli Stoici. Bologna: Pàtron.

  44. Nasti de Vincentis, Mauro. 1983. "Chrysippean Implication as Strict Equivalence." In Atti Del Convegno Internazionale Di Storia Della Logica, edited by Abrusci, Michele, Casari, Ettore and Mugnai, Massino, 235-240. Bologna: CLUEB.

  45. ———. 1994. "Connexive Implication in a Chrysippean Setting." In Logica E Filosofia Della Scienza: Problemi E Prospettive. Atti Del Congresso Triennale Della Società Italiana Di Logica E Filosofia Delle Scienze (Lucca, 7-10 Gennaio 1993), edited by Cellucci, Carlo, Di Mario, Maria Concetta and Roncaglia, Gino, 595-603. Pisa: ETS.

  46. ———. 1998. "La Validità Del Condizionale Crisippeo in Sesto Empirico E Boezio (Parte I)." Dianoia no. 3:45-75.

  47. ———. 1999. "La Validità Del Condizionale Crisippeo in Sesto Empirico E Boezio (Parte Ii)." Dianoia no. 4:11-43.

  48. ———. 2002. Logiche Della Connessività. Fra Logica Moderna E Storia Della Loica Antica. Bern: Haupt.

    Indice: Premessa 7; Introduzione 11; 1. L'interpretazione classica e le sue varianti 39; 2. La pars destruens: le difficoltà dell'interpretazione classica 69; 3. La pars construens: verso una nuova interpretazione 95; 4. Obbiezioni, risposte e conferme 123; 5. Implicazione crisippea e implicazione boeziana 151; 6. Considerazioni conclusive e problemi aperti 173; Appendice: La dottina boeziana della repugnantia - Scelta di testi 193; Riferimenti bibiografici 231-232.

  49. ———. 2009. "Dalla Tesi Di Aristotele Alla Tesi Di Boezio: Una Tesi Per L'implicazione Crisippea?" In La Logica Nel Pensiero Antico, edited by Alessandrelli, Michele and Nasti de Vincentis, Mauro, 165-248. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

  50. Pachet, Pierre. 1975. "La Deixis Selon Zénon Et Chrysippe." Phronesis.A Journal for Ancient Philosophy no. 20:241-246.

  51. Papazian, Michael B. 2001. "Chrysippus and the Destruction of Propositions: A Defence of the Standard Interpretation." History and Philosophy of Logic no. 22:1-12.

    "One of the most intriguing claims of Stoic logic is Chrysippus's denial of the modal principle that the impossible does not follow from the possible. Chrysippus's argument against this principle involves the idea that some propositions are 'destroyed' or 'perish'. According to the standard interpretation of Chrysippus's argument, propositions cease to exist when they are destroyed. Ide has presented an alternative interpretation according to which destroyed propositions persist after destruction and are false. I argue that Ide's alternative interpretation as well as some versions of the standard interpretation conflict with Stoic doctrines about the nature of propositions. I propose another version of the standard interpretation based on Frede's account of the Stoic theory of the proposition. I hold that this version of the standard interpretation both escapes Ide's objections and is consistent with Stoic logic and philosophy of language."

  52. Pizzi, Claudio. 1998. "Implicazione Crisippea E Dipendenza Contestuale." Dianoia no. 3:25-44.

  53. Sedley, David. 1984. "The Negated Conjunction in Stoicism." Elenchos.Rivista di Studi sul Pensiero Antico no. 5:311-316.

  54. Tieleman, Teun. 1996. Galen and Chrysippus on the Soul: Argument and Refutation in the De Placitis, Book Ii-Iii. Leiden: Brill.

  55. Todd, Robert B. 1973. "The Stoic Common Notions: A Reexamination and Reinterpretation." Symbolae Osloenses:47-75.

  56. Vuillemin, Jules. 1983. "Le Carré Chrysippéen Des Modalités." Dialectica no. 37:235-247.

    "A sentence p is necessary, according to Chrysippus if p is true and, p being susceptible of being false, the external circumstances prevent it from being false. This explanation is used in order to construct the modal square or rather the two modal squares. Something is specific in the chrysippean logic: from the necessity of p we may validly conclude that it is impossible that not p, while the converse conclusion is not valid."