History of Logic from Aristotle to Gödel (www.historyoflogic.com)

by Raul Corazzon | e-mail: rc@ontology.co

Cicero's philosophical works. A Selected Bibliography

Contents of this Section

This part of the section Hellenistic Logic includes the following pages:

Logic and Rhetoric in the Philosophical Works of Cicero

Cicero's philosophical and rhetorical works. English, Italian, French and German translations

Cicero's philosophical works. A Selected Bibliography (Current page)


  1. Albrecht, Michael von. 2003. Cicero's Style: A Synopsis. Leiden: Brill.

    Followed by Selected Analytic Studies.

  2. André, Jean-Marie. 1977. La Philosophie À Rome. Paris: Presses Univeristaires de France.

    Chapitre 2 Cicéron créateur de la philosophie latine, pp. 50-101.

  3. Aubert, Sophie. 2008. "Cicéron Et La Parole Stoïcienne: Polémique Autour De La Dialectique." Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale no. 57:61-91.

    "In many passages, Cicero analyzes Stoic language in a precise, though polemical, way. Since a syllogistic style coexists with a more abundant one in the same speech, he wholly discredits Stoic rhetoric and declares that the philosophers of the Porch only possess one way of expressing themselves, the dialectical one, whose validity he contests both in the practice of philosophy, which he thinks is ineffective, and in the field of oratory, because such a style is fundamentally inappropriate to every possible audience. In De Oratore, Crassus analyzes Stoic philosophical expression from a rhetorical point of view, whereas he studies Academic and Peripatetic philosophical eloquence without examining if it would suit an orator. In Brutus, the eponymous character insists on the so-called unity and homogeneity of Stoic eloquence, both in Athens and in Rome, in philosophical conversations and in forensic, deliberative or encomiastic speeches. The description of Diogenes of Babylon's style by Antony confirms that Stoic language is restricted to dialectic, and thus unable to delight, to move or even to teach. It is also dry, obscure (because of a constant gap between res and uerba), useless as far as invention and topics are concerned, and above all, self-destructive. However, Stoic dialectic did have a heuristic function, and not only a defensive or an agonistic one."

  4. Auvray-Assayas, Clara. 2006. Cicéron. Paris: Belles Lettres.

  5. Auvray-Assayas, Clara, and Delattre, Daniel, eds. 2001. Cicéron Et Philodème. La Polémique En Philosophie. Paris: Rue d'Ulm.

  6. Barnes, Jonathan. 1997. "Logic in Academica I and the Lucullus." In Assent and Argument. Studies in Cicero Academic Books, edited by Inwood, Brad and Mansfeld, Jaap, 140-160. Leiden: Brill.

  7. Benardete, Seth. 1987. "Cicero's De Legibus I. Its Plan and Intention." American Journal of Philology no. 108:295-309.

    Cicero adds rhetoric to the usual tripartition of philosophy into ethics, physics, and dialectic.

  8. Blyth, Dougal. 2010. "Cicero and Philosophy as Text." Classical Journal no. 106:71-98.

    "Philosophy for Cicero implies not only a way of life taught orally in a school but also reading and writing. This foreshadows his influence on the later Latin tradition, which identified philosophy with the meaning and evaluation of texts, and ultimately replaced its conception as an autonomous way of life. I propose four factors in Cicero's influence: initiating the tradition of Latin philosophical prose; developing its vocabulary; the choice of a rhetorical over a dialectical mode; and locating discussion in the context of libraries, reading and book production."

  9. Boyancé, Pierre. 1971. "Cicéron Et Les Parties De La Philosophie." Revues des Études Grecques no. 49:127-154.

  10. Brignoli, Fernando. 1957. "Le Parole Greche Nelle Opere Di Cicerone." In Studi Ciceroniani, 101-162. Napoli: Armanni.

  11. Buckley, Michael J. 1970. "Philosophic Method in Cicero." Journal of the History of Philosophy no. 8:143-154.

    "The two moments of Cicero's methodology are invention and judgment, the discovery of things or arguments or symbols and their consequent testing, criticism or verification. His dialogues provide both, not by moving dialectically from oppositions to an assimilation of lesser truths into the greater, but by the perspectival discrimination of scientific formulations into their diverse frames of reference and uniting them into irreducible controversy. Controversy constitutes the universal method, and its product is probabilities. The rhetorical is distinguished from the philosophic as this single method is brought to bear upon particular cases (causae) or universal questions (quaestiones). The four aristotelian questions of inquiry transpose into the four questions of controversy, queries about facts, symbols, kinds, and pragmatic consequences. An example of their structural usage is found in Cicero's treatment of the gods."

  12. Burkert, Walter. 1965. "Cicero Als Platoniker Und Skeptiker." Gymnasium no. 72:175-200.

  13. Clark, Mark Edward, and Ruebel, James S. 1975. "Philosophy and Rhetoric in Cicero's Pro Milone." Rheinisches Museum für Philologie no. 128:57-72.

  14. Clausen, Marion. 2008. Maxima in Sensibus Veritas? - Die Platonischen Und Stoischen Grundlagen Der Erkenntniskritik in Ciceros Lucullus. Bern: Peter Lang.

  15. Cole, Thomas A. 1997. "Canonicity and Multivalence: The Case of Cicero." In The Rhetoric Canon, edited by Schildgen, Brenda Deen, 33-45. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

  16. Colish, Marcia. 1985. The Stoic Tradition from Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. Leiden: Brill.

    Vol. I: Stoicism in Classical Latin literature (1985); Vol. II: Stoicism in Christian Latin thought through the Sixth century (1990).

    See Vol. I, Chapter Two: Cicero pp. 61-158.

  17. D'Onofrio, Giulio. 2002. "Il Parricidio Di Cicerone. Le Metamorfosi Della Verità Tra Gli Academica Ciceroniani E Il Contra Academicos Di Agostino (Lettura Di Testi),." In Enosis Kai Philia - Unione E Amicizia. Omaggio a Francesco Romano, edited by Barbanti, Maria, Giardina, Giovanna R. and Manganaro, Paolo, 207-236. Catania: CUECM.

    "Studies the evolution from Cicero's probabilism, through its rejection by Lactantius, for whom only Christianity can supply the indubitable truths required by philosophy; to Augustine's Academici. The ignorance of ultimate truth which, for Cicero, is the end result of philosophy, is for Augustine only the starting-point. Truth, being divine, is superior to the human mind, and can be known to us only through divine self-revelation."

  18. Douglas, Alan Edward. 1965. "Cicero the Philosopher." In Cicero, edited by Dorey, Thomas Alan, 135-170. London: Routledge.

  19. ———. 1968. Cicero. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  20. ———. 1973. "The Intellectual Background of Cicero's Rhetorica. A Study in Method." In Aufstieg Und Niedergang Der Römischen Welt, Teil I: Von Den Anfängen Roms Bis Zum Ausgang Der Republik, Band 3: Sprache Und Literatur (1. Jahrunderth V. Chr.), edited by Temporini, Hildegard, 95-138. Berlin: de Gruyter.

  21. Dross, Juliette. 2010. Voir La Philosophie. Les Représentations De La Philosophie À Rome. Rhétorique Et Philosophie, De Cicéron À Marc Aurèle. Paris: Belles Lettres.

  22. Englert, Walter. 1990. "Bringing Philosophy to the Light: Cicero's Paradoxa Stoicorum." Apeiron no. 23:117-142.

    "In the Paradoxa Stoicorum Cicero tried unsuccessfully to bridge the gap that he saw between learned and philosophical discourse on the one hand, and popular discourse on the other. There is a tension in the work between this aim and the form he employed, the commonplace. Cicero learned from this experiment, and the Paradoxa was an important step in his philosophical and literary development."

  23. Erskine, Andrew. 2003. "Cicero and the Shaping of Hellenistic Philosophy." Hermathena:5-15.

    "Cicero stands closest in time to the lost works of the Hellenistic philosophers, and his are the first substantial philosophical writings to survive since the days of Aristotle. As a result Cicero has done much to shape the way in which we think about the Hellenistic philosophers. In his Tusculan disputations and in De officiis Cicero confronted problems of his own and looked to Greek philosophy for solutions. Cicero was no doxographer putting together tidy summaries; he was a man with strong opinions who turned Hellenistic philosophy into what he wanted it to be."

  24. Ferguson, John. 1962. "Cicero's Contribution to Philosophy." In Studies in Cicero, edited by Ferguson, John, 99-111. Rome: Centro di Studi Ciceroniani.

  25. ———, ed. 1962. Studies in Cicero. Rome: Centro di Studi Ciceroniani.

    Contents: John Ferguson: Preface 7; John Ferguson: Some Ancient Judgments of Cicero 11; LLoyd A. Thompson: Cicero the Politician 37; John Ferguson: The Religion of Cicero 83; John Ferguson: Cicero's Contribution to Philosophy 99; Arthur R. Hands: Humour and Vanity in Cicero 115; W.A. Ladlaw: Cicero and the Arts 129-142.

  26. Fortenbaugh, William W. 1989. "Cicero's Knowledge of the Rhetorical Treatises of Aristotle and Theophrastus." In Cicero's Knowledge of the Peripatos, edited by Fortenbaugh, William W. and Steinmetz, Peter, 39-60. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

  27. ———. 1998. "Cicero, on Invention 1.51-77 Hypothetical Syllogistic and the Early Peripatetics." Rhetorica.A Journal of the History of Rhetoric no. 16:25-46.

    "In On Invention, Cicero discusses both induction and deduction. In regard to the latter, Cicero presents a controversy between those who advocate a five-part analysis of deductive reasoning and those who prefer three parts. The issue is not practical or pedagogical, but conceptual in nature. Cicero himself prefers analysis into five parts, and rather confusingly he presents the argument of the advocates of five parts as if it were his own. The argument is striking in that it makes elaborate use of mixed hypothetical syllogisms in order to argue for five parts. Cicero claims that the five-part analysis has been preferred by all who take their start from Aristotle and Theophrastus. A survey of what Theophrastus is reported to have said concerning the hypothetical syllogism renders Cicero's claim intelligible. That is not to say that Theophrastus himself advocated a five-part analysis. Most likely the association with him derives from his known interest in hypothetical syllogistic. Later rhetoricians who identified themselves with the Peripatos made the cormection with the founders of the school, thereby gaining authority for a controversial analysis."

  28. ———. 2005. "Cicero as a Reporter of Aristotelian and Theophrastean Rhetorical Doctrine." Rhetorica.A Journal of the History of Rhetoric no. 13:37-64.

    "This article is based on a general principle: the study of a fragmentary author should begin with a study of the sources. The particular subject is Cicero as a source for Theophrastus' rhetorical doctrine. The works On Invention, On the Orator and Orator are considered one after the other. The reliability of Cicero is tested by comparing what is said about Aristotle with what we read in the existing Rhetoric. Grounds for caution will be found. In the case of Theophrastus, we shall discover that Cicero does have value as a source, but his value should not be overstated. The reports are often quite general and sometimes they involve Ciceronian additions."

  29. Fortenbaugh, William W., and Steinmetz, Peter, eds. 1989. Cicero's Knowledge of the Peripatos. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

    Contents: Note on Contributors XI; List of Cicero's Philosophical Works XIII-XVII; J. G. F. Powell: Introduction: Cicero's Philosophical Works and their Background 1; 1. A. A. Long: Cicero's Plato and Aristotle 37; 2. Malcolm Schofield: Cicero's Definition of Res Publica 63; 3. Woldemar Görler: Silencing the Troublemaker: De Legibus 1.39 and the Continuity of Cicero's Scepticism 85; 4. John Glucker: Probabile, Veri Simile, and Related Terms 115 5. Michael C. Stokes: Cicero on Epicurean Pleasures 145; 6. M. R. Wright: Cicero on Self-Love and Love of Humanity in De Finibus 3 171; 7. A. E. Douglas:

    Form and Content in the Tusculan Disputations 197; 8. Stephen A. White: Cicero and the Therapists 219; 9. R. W. Sharples: Causes and Necessary Conditions in the Topica and De Fato 247; 10. J. G. F. Powell: Cicero's Translations from Greek 273; 11. Philippa R. Smith: 'A Self-indulgent misuse of leisure and writing'? How Not to Write Philosophy: Did Cicero Get It Right? 301; 12. Miriam T. Griffin: Philosophical Badinage in Cicero's Letters to his Friends 325; Indexes 347-360.

  30. Fox, Matthew. 2007. Cicero's Philosophy of History. New York: Oxford University Press.

  31. Gaines, Robert N. 2002. "Cicero's Partitiones Oratoriae and Topica: Rhetorical Philosophy and Philosophical Rhetoric." In Brill´S Companion to Cicero. Oratory and Rhetoric, edited by May, James M., 445-480. Leiden: Brill.

  32. Gantar, Kajetan. 1995. "Cicero Über Die Anfänge Der Philosophie in Rom." Wiener Humanistische Blätter:45-58.

    Sonderheft zur Philosophie der Antike.

  33. Gawlick, Gunther. 1956. Untersuchungen Zu Ciceros Philosophischer Methode.

    Unpublished Ph.D. thesis (University of Kiel).

  34. Gawlick, Gunther, and Görler, Woldemar. 1994. "Cicero." In Grundriss Der Geschichte Der Philosophie. Die Philosophie Der Antike Band Iv: Die Hellenistische Philosophie, edited by Flashar, Helmut, 991-1168. Basel: Schwabe.

    Begründet von Friedrich Ueberweg.

  35. Gersh, Stephen. 1986. Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism. The Latin Tradition. Notre Dame: University of Indiana Press.

    See Vol. I Chapter 1, Cicero pp. 53-154.

  36. Gigon, Olof. 1973. "Cicero Und Die Griechische Philosophie." In Aufstieg Und Niedergang Der Römischen Welt, Teil I: Von Den Anfängen Roms Bis Zum Ausgang Der Republik, Band 4: Philosophie Und Wissenschaften, edited by Temporini, Hildegard, 226-261. Berlin: de Gruyter.

  37. ———. 2011. "Cicero Und Aristoteles." Hermes no. 87:143-162.

  38. Gildenhard, Gingo. 2011. The Construction of Reality in Cicero's Speeches. New York: Oxford University Press.

  39. Glucker, John. 1988. "Cicero's Philosophical Affiliations." In The Question of "Eclecticism". Studies in Later Greek Philosophy, edited by Dillon, John M. and Long, Anthony Arthur, 34-69. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  40. ———. 1992. "Cicero's Philosophical Affiliations Again." Liverpool Classical Monthly no. 17:134-138.

  41. Görler, Woldemar. 1974. Untersuchungen Zu Ciceros Philosophie. Heidelberg: C. Winter.

  42. ———. 1988. "From Athens to Tusculum: Reconsidering the Background of Cicero's De Oratore." Rhetorica no. 6:215-235.

    Reprinted in: W. Görler, Kleine Schriften zur hellenistisch-römischen Philosophie, edited by Christoph Catrein, Philosophia Antiqua, XCV, Leiden:Brill, 2004, pp. 172-192.

  43. ———. 1989. "Cicero Und Die 'Schule Des Aristoteles'." In Cicero's Knowledge of the Peripatos, edited by Fortenbaugh, William W. and Steinmetz, Peter, 246-262. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

    Reprinted in: W. Görler, Kleine Schriften zur hellenistisch-römischen Philosophie, edited by Christoph Catrein, Philosophia Antiqua, XCV, Leiden:Brill, 2004, pp. 193-211.

    "Cicero is well acquainted with Peripatetic philosophers from Theophrastus up to his own time. But he does not approve of their philosophical tenets and quotes them but rarely. Some general conclusions may be drawn as to Cicero's reliability as a "source author": Wherever Cicero cites his authority he may be trusted. More often, however, his statements about Greek philosophers (given in vague and general terms) are thoroughly tinged with his own philosophical convictions. Verbatim quotations of Greek 'sources' are to be found only where Cicero says so, explicitly. All other passages are of his own wording and should not be regarded as 'fragments'."

  44. ———. 1990. "Antiochos Von Askalon Über Die "Alten" Und Über Die Stoa: Beobachtungen Zu Cicero, Academici Posteriores 1,24-43." In Beiträge Zur Hellenistischen Literatur Und Ihrer Rezeption in Rom, edited by Steinmetz, Peter, 123-139. Stuttgart: Steiner.

    Reprinted in: W. Görler, Kleine Schriften zur hellenistisch-römischen Philosophie, edited by Christoph Catrein, Philosophia Antiqua, XCV, Leiden:Brill, 2004, pp. 87-104.

  45. ———. 1997. "Cicero's Philosophical Stance in the Lucullus." In Assent and Argument. Studies in Cicero' Academic Books, edited by Inwood, Brad and Mansfeld, Jaap, 36-57. Leiden: Brill.

    Reprinted in: W. Görler, Kleine Schriften zur hellenistisch-römischen Philosophie, edited by Christoph Catrein, Philosophia Antiqua, XCV, Leiden:Brill, 2004, pp. 268-290.

  46. Gorman, Robert. 2005. The Socratic Method in the Dialogues of Cicero. Wiesbaden: Franz steiner.

  47. Gotter, Ulrich. 1996. "Der Platonismus Ciceros Und Die Krise Der Republik." In Hellenismus. Beiträge Zur Erforschung Von Akkulturation Und Politischer Ordnung in Den Staaten Des Hellenistischen Zeitalters, edited by Funck, Bernd, 543-559. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck).

  48. Gottschalk, Hans B. 1987. "Aristotelian Philosophy in the Roman World from the Time of Cicero to the End of the Second Century Ad." In Aufstieg Und Niedergang Der Römischen Welt. Tel Ii: Teilband: Philosophie (Platonismus, [Forts.]; Aristotelismus) Band 36: Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik, edited by Haase, Wolfgang, 1079-1174. Berlin: de Gruyter.

    Revised reprint in: R. Sorabji (ed.) - Aristotle transformed. The Ancient Commentators and their Influence (London, Duckworth, 1990), pp. 55-81.

  49. Guazzoni Foà, Virginia. 1958. "La Terminologia Filosofica Ciceroniana." Giornale di Metafisica no. 13:225-242.

  50. Guérin, Charles. 2009. Persona. L'élaboration D'une Notion Rhétorique Au Ier Siècle Av. J.-C. Paris: Vrin.

    Volume I: Antécédents grecs et première rhétorique latine (2009); Volume II: Théorisation cicéronienne de la persona oratoire (2011).

  51. Hartung, Hans-Joachim. 1970. Ciceros Methode Bei Der Übersetzung Griechischer Philosophischer Termini. Hamburg.

  52. Hirzel, Rudolf. 1877. Untersuchungen Zu Ciceros Philosophischen Schriften. Leipzig: S. Hirzel.

    Vol. 1: 1. De natura deorum (1877); Vol. 2.1/2: De finibus. De officiis (1882); Vol. 3: Academica priora. Tusculanae disputationes (1883).

  53. Horsley, Richard A. 1978. "The Law of Nature in Philo and Cicero." Harvard Theological Review no. 71:35-59.

    " Philo is the first to use the Greek expression nomos tes phuseos frequently, but the same idea occurs earlier in Cicero. Both Philo and Cicero drew on a Stoic tradition, which was part of a broad movement of social-political philosophy. Antiochus of Ascalon, head of the Academy in the early first century B.C., was the key figure and the thinker upon whom Cicero and, probably, Philo depend. The Christian idea of natural law and the philosophical rationalization of Roman law derive from the transcendent conception of the law of nature."

  54. Huby, Pamela. 1988. "Boethius Vindicates Cicero as a Logician." Liverpool Classical Monthly no. 13:60-61.

  55. ———. 1989. "Cicero's Topics and Its Peripatetic Sources." In Cicero's Knowledge of the Peripatos, edited by Fortenbaugh, William W. and Steinmetz, Peter, 61-76. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

    "What is the origin of the list of Topics in Cicero's Topics and other works? Aristotle's primarily dialectical topics were transferred to rhetoric and law, and Cicero's inept treatment suggests a Greek original designed for different purposes. The fifth-century Martianus Capella has a similar list and, separately, some propositional logic identical with that embedded in Cicero's list. Both may have a post-Chrysippean Stoic original. Boethius claims to give a list of topics from Themistius, but that is confused. Cicero's account of what a topic is may come from Theophrastus, but his sources are many."

  56. Inwood, Brad, and Mansfeld, Jaap, eds. 1997. Assent and Argument. Studies in Cicero's Academic Books. Leiden: Brill.

    Proceedings of the 7th Symposium Hellenisticum (Utrecht, August 21-25, 1995).

  57. Johanson, Carmen, and Londey, David. 1988. "Cicero on Propositions: Academica Ii.95." Mnemosyne no. 41:325-342.

  58. Jones, David Mervyn. 1959. "Cicero as a Translator." Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies no. 6:22-34.

  59. Leonhardt, Jünger. 1999. Ciceros Kritik Der Philosophenschulen. München: C. H. Beck.

  60. Lévy, Carlos. 1984. "La Dialectique De Cicéron Dans Les Livres Ii Et Iv Du De Finibus." Revues des Études Latines no. 62:111-127.

  61. ———. 1985. "Cicéron Et La Quatrième Académie." Revues des Études Latines no. 63:32-41.

  62. ———. 1989. "Le De Officiis Dans L'oeuvre Philosophique De Cicéron." Vita latina no. 116:10-16.

  63. ———. 1992. "Cicéron Créateur Du Vocabulaire Latin De La Connaissance: Essay De Synthèse." In La Langue Latine Langue De La Philosophie, 91-106. Palais Farnèse: École française de Rome.

    "La création par Cicéron du vocabulaire philosophique latin a été un acte d'une grande audace intellectuelle, à l'égard duquel Atticus et Varron ont d'abord été très réservés, pour des raisons à la fois culturelles et philosophiques. C'est l'élaboration dans les Académiques d'une terminologie fort complexe, destinée à rendre les concepts gnoséologiques stoïciens et académiciens, qui a renforcé la confiance que Cicéron a toujours eue dans les possibilités philosophiques de la langue latine. L'étude de ce vocabulaire (epoché, katalepton, sugkatathesis, ennoia, prolepsis) montre que, si le principal souci de Cicéron était de concilier précision et uarietas, il a néanmoins exprimé, par son choix ou sa création de certains termes, une vision du monde qui ne coïncidait pas nécessairement avec celle des philosophes grecs. La construction du concept de "probalble" à partir du pithanon et de l'eulogon confirme à quel point cette démarche aura été féconde."

  64. ———. 1992. Cicero Academicus. Recherches Sur Les "Académiques" Et Sur La Philosophie Cicéronienne. Rome: École française de Rome.

  65. ———. 1996. "Doxographie Et Philosophie Chez Cicéron." In Le Concept De Nature À Rome. La Physique, edited by Lévy, Carlos, 109-123. Paris: Presses de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure.

  66. ———. 1997. "Les Titres Des Oeuvres Philosophiques De Cicéron." In Titres Et Articulations Du Texte Dans L'antiquité, edited by Fredouille, Jean-Claude, 191-207. Paris: Études augustiniennes.

  67. ———. 2000. "Cicéron Critique De L'éloquence Stoïcienne." In Papers on Rhetoric. Vol Iii, edited by Calboli Montefusco, Lucia, 127-144. Bologna: CLUEB.

  68. ———. 2008. "Cicéron, Le Moyen Platonisme Et La Philosophie Romaine: À Propos De La Naissance Du Concept Latin De Qualitas." Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale no. 57:5-20.

    "Cicero held a complex position towards Middle Platonism. His masters, Philo of Larissa and Antiochus of Ascalon, each in his own way, had used elements which were to influence the emergence of this kind of thought. As for him, who inherited both of these teachings, he defines himself as a rigorous New Academic, but his work includes most of the ingredients usually considered as the theoretical core of Middle Platonism. The invention of qualitas has much to do with this situation. Apparently, this word is the exact equivalent of Stoic poiotés however, it is original insofar as it does not refer any more to the Stoic theory of principles, since the active power acting on matter is not identified with the pneuma any more. As he identifies qualitas with the qualified object, Cicero, through Antiochus-Varro, leaves room to the hypothesis that the world may not have a material origin."

  69. Liscu, Marin O. 1930. Étude Sur La Langue De La Philosophie Morale Chez Cicéron. Paris: Belles Lettres.

  70. ———. 1937. L'éxpression Des Idées Philosophiques Chez Cicéron. Paris: Belles Lettres.

  71. Long, Anthony Arthur. 1995. "Cicero's Plato and Aristotle." In Cicero the Philosopher. Twelve Papers, edited by Powell, Jonathan G.F., 37-61. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Reprinted in: A. A. Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus. Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, New York, Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 285-306.

  72. MacKendrick, Paul. 1989. The Philosophical Books of Cicero. London: Duckworth.

    With the collaboration of Karen Lee Singh.

  73. Mancal, Josef. 1982. Untersuchungen Zum Begriff Der Philosophie Bei M. Tullius Cicero. München: W. Fink.

  74. Marinone, Nino. 2004. Cronologia Ciceroniana. Bologna: Patron.

    Second edition updated and corrected by Ermanno Malaspina (also available in CD-ROM).; First edition: Roma: Centro di studi ciceroniani, 1997.

  75. Maso, Stefano. 2008. Capire E Dissentire. Cicerone E La Filosofia Di Epicuro. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

  76. May, James M., ed. 2002. Brill´S Companion to Cicero. Oratory and Rhetoric. Leiden: Brill.

    Contents: Preface IX; List of Contributors XI; 1. James M. May: Cicero: His Life and Career 1; 2. Anthony Corbeill: Rhetorical Education in Cicero's Youth 23; 3. James M. May: Ciceronian Oratory in Context 49; 4. Ann Vasaly: Cicero's Early Speeches 71; 5. Robert W. Cape, Jr.: Cicero's Consular Speeches 113; 6. Andrew M. Riggsby: The Post Reditum Speeches 159; 7. Anthony Corbeill: Ciceronian Invective 197; 8. Harold C. Gotoff: Cicero's Caesarian Orations 219; 9. Jon Hall: The Philippics 273; 10. Jane W. Crawford: The Lost and Fragmentary Orations 305; 11. Jakob Wisse: The Intellectual Background of Cicero's Rhetorical Works 331; 12. Jakob Wissse: De Oratore: Rhetoric, Philosophy, and the Making of the Ideal Orator 375; 13. Emanuele NarduccI: (translated by the Editor): Brutus: The History of Roman Eloquence 401; 14. Emanuele NarduccI: (translated by the Editor): Orator and the Definition of the Ideal Orator 427; 15. Robert N. Gaines: Cicero's Partitiones Oratoriae and Topica: Rhetorical Philosophy and Philosophical Rhetoric 445; 16. George A. Kennedy: Cicero's Oratorical and Rhetorical Legacy 481; 17. Christopher P. Craig: A Survey of Selected Recent Work on Cicero's

    Rhetorica and Speeches 503; Christopher P. Craig: Bibliography 533; General Index 601; Index Locorum 622-632.

  77. ———. 2007. "Cicero as Rhetorician." In A Companion to Roman Rhetoric, edited by Dominik, William and Hall, Jon, 250-263. Blackwell.

  78. McKeon, Richard. 1950. "Introduction to the Philosophy of Cicero." In Brutus. On the Nature of the Gods. On Divination. On Duties, 1-65. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  79. ———. 1966. "The Methods of Rhetoric and Philosophy: Invention and Judgment." In The Classical Tradition. Literary and Historical Studies in Honor of Harry Caplan, edited by Wallach, Luitpold, 365-373. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

    Reprinted as Chapter 6 in: R. McKeon, Selected Writings of Richard McKeon. Vol. 2:: Culture, Education, and the Arts, edited by Zahava K. MacKeon and William G. Swenson, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2005, pp. 97-103.

  80. Merguet, Hugo. 1961. Lexikon Zu Den Philosophischen Schriften Cicero's. Mit Angabe Samtlicher Stellen. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Original edition in three volumes Jean, 1887-1894.

  81. Michel, Alain. 1962. Le 'Dialogue Des Orateurs' De Tacite Et La Philosophie De Cicéron. Paris: Klincksieck.

  82. ———. 1968. "Ciceron Et Les Paradoxes Stoiciens." Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientarum Hungaricae no. 16:223-232.

  83. ———. 1973. "Rhétorique Et Philosophie Dans Les Traités De Cicéron." In Aufstieg Und Niedergang Der Römischen Welt, Teil I: Von Den Anfängen Roms Bis Zum Ausgang Der Republik, Band 3: Sprache Und Literatur (I. Jahrundert V. Chr.), edited by Temporini, Hildegard, 139-208. Berlin: de Gruyter.

  84. ———. 1982. "La Théorie De La Rhétorique Chez Cicéron: Éloquence Et Philosophie." In Éloquence Et Rhétorique Chez Cicéron. Sept Exposés Suivis De Discussions, edited by Ludwig, Walther, 109-147. Genève: Fondation Hardt.

  85. ———. 1992. "Cicéron Et La Langue Philosophique: Problèmes D'éthique Et D'esthétique." In La Langue Latine Langue De La Philosophie. Palais Farnèse: École française de Rome.

    Actes du colloque organisé per l'École française de Rome avec le concours de l'Universitém de Rome "La Sapienza" (Rome, 17-19 mai 1990).

    "La philosophie morale joue un rôle dominant dans la pensée de Cicéron. On a reproché à la langue qu'il emploie l'imprécision, l'équivoque et le manque de personnalité; on a souligné que le latin se prêtait mal à la transcription d'enseignements grecs. En réalité, la démarche de l'orateur est originale, fondée sur la mise en relation de la rhétorique, de la philosophie et de la romanité (dialogue et doxographie, langage et mores, esthétique et sagesse). Ainsi apparaissent, autour de la notion d'humanitas, un certain nombre de termes qui resteront fondamentaux jusqu'à notre temps."

  86. ———. 2003. Les Rapports De La Rhétorique Et De La Philosophie Dans L'oeuvre De Cicéron. Louvain: Peeters.

    Deuxième édition avec une Appendice 1960-2002 (pp. 741-753).

    Première édition: Paris, 1960.

  87. Moreschini, Claudio. 1979. "Osservazioni Sul Lessico Filosofico Di Cicerone." Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa.Classe di Lettere e Filosofia no. 9:99-178.

    "L'esame della terminologia filosofica di Cicerone non seguirà il più comune e più noto ordine della tripartizione stoica (logica - fisica - etica), bensì quello che Cicerone stesso si è dato nel proemio al secondo libro del De divinatione, e su cui si è opportunamente soffermato P. Boyancé (1), e precisamente: problema della conoscenza (Academica), etica (De finibus e Tusculanae), fisica (De natura deorum, De divinatione, De fato); la logica, in particolare il suo aspetto di quaestio perÌ dunaton, si ricollega al De fato. Sarebbe, questo, un ordine che rispecchierebbe la successione di Antioco di Ascalona, secondo il quale l'etica precederebbe la fisica." p. 103.

    (1) Cf. P. Boyancé, Cicéron et les parties de la philosophie, Revue des Études Latines, XLIX, 1971, 127-154.

  88. Muchnova, Dagmar. 1980. "Veritas Dans Les Traités Philosophiques De Marcus Tullius Cicéron." Graecolatina Pragensia no. 8:41-51.

    "L'examen des synonymes et antonymes et l'analyse de l'emploi de veritas, surtout du point de vue sémantique, montrent que Cicéron a contribué à la diffusion de ce terme, ainsi qu'à celle du mot verum, et qu'il les a enrichis d'un sens philosophique."

  89. Muller, Philippe. 1990. Cicéron, Un Philospphe Pour Notre Temps. Lausanne: L'Age d'Homme.

  90. Poncelet, Roland. 1957. Cicéron Traducteur De Platon. L'expression De La Pensée Complexe En Latin Classique. Paris: De Boccard.

  91. Powell, Jonathan G.F., ed. 1995. Cicero the Philosopher. Twelve Papers. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  92. ———. 1995. "Cicero's Translations from Greek." In Cicero the Philosopher. Twelve Papers, edited by Powell, Jonathan G.F., 273-300. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  93. ———. 2007. "Cicero." In Greek and Roman Philosophy 100 Bc - 200 Ad. Vol. Ii, edited by Sharples, Robert W. and Sorabji, Richard, 333-345. London: Institute of Classical Studies.

  94. Radford, Robert T. 2002. Cicero. A Study in the Origins of Republican Philosophy. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

  95. Rawson, Elizabeth. 1978. "The Introduction of Logical Organisation in Roman Prose Literature." Papers of the British School at Rome no. 46:12-34.

    Reprinted in: E. Rawson, Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1991, pp. 324-351.

  96. ———. 1983. Cicero. A Portrait. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

  97. Riposati, Benedetto. 1947. Studi Sui Topica Di Cicerone. Milano: Vita e Pensiero.

  98. ———. 1985. "La Terminologia Logica Nelle Opere Retoriche Di Cicerone." In Hommages À Henry Bardon, edited by Renard, Marcel and Laurens, Pierre, 319-331. Bruxelles: Latomus.

  99. Rosén, Hanna. 193. "The Mechanisms of Latin Nominalization and Conceptualization in Historical View." In Aufstieg Und Niedergang Der Römischen Welt, Teil Ii: Principat, Band 29.2: Sprache Und Literatur (Sprachen Und Schriften), edited by Haase, Wolfgang, 178-211. Berlin: de Gruyter.

    See in particular: Specialized uses and names for nominal concepts: Cicero's methods of innovation, pp. 204-209.

  100. Rubinelli, Sara. 2009. Ars Topica. The Classical Technique of Constructing Arguments from Aristotle to Cicero. Dordrecht: Springer.

    Contents; Introduction by David S. Levene: Topoi in Their Rhetorical Context XVII-XXII; Part I: The Creation of the Method of Topoi and Its Characteristics. 1. Aristotle's Topics 3; 2. Dialectical and Rhetorical Uses of Topoi 43; Part II: Topoi and Loci. 3. Cicero's Use of Locus in De Inventione 93; 4.Cicero's List of Aristotelian Loci 111; Conclusion 145; Bibliography 149; Index of Concepts 155; Index of Passages 157-160.

  101. Ruch, Michel. 1995. Le Préambule Dans Les Oeuvres Philosophiques De Cicéron. Essai Sur La Genèse Et L'art Du Dialogue. Strasbourg: Presses Universitaires de Strasbourg.

  102. Runia, David T. 1989. "Aristotle and Theophrastus Conjoined in the Writings of Cicero." In Cicero's Knowledge of the Peripatos, edited by Fortenbaugh, William W. and Steinmetz, Peter, 23-38. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

    "An analysis is given of the 16 passages in Cicero's rhetorical and philosophical works where the names of Aristotle and Theophrastus are mentioned together. Cicero joins them together so often (1) because of his great interest in philosophical successions, and (2) because he regards the encyclopedic research carried out in the early Peripatos as an example to follow in his own attempt to present philosophy to a Roman audience."

  103. Schallenberg, Magnus. 2008. Freiheit Und Determinismus. Ein Philosophischer Kommentar Zu Ciceros Schrift De Fato. Berlin: de Gruyter.

  104. Schenkeveld, Dirk M. 2001. "Philosophical Prose." In Handbook of Classical Rhetoric in the Hellenistic Period, 330 B.C.-A.D. 400, edited by E., Porter Stanley, 195-264. Leiden: Brill.

  105. Schmidt, Peter L. 1979. "Cicero's Place in Roman Philosophy: A Study of His Prefaces." Classical Journal no. 74:115-127.

    "Cicero's philosophical works represent two phases, the first from 56 B.C. to 51 when he wrote political philosophy as part of his active involvement in public life, and the second from 46 to 43 when, deprived of political influence by the course of events, he turned to ethics. In the prefaces to the works of the second period, he presents himself as motivated by a desire still to serve the state and by cultural competition with his Greek models. His reluctance to endorse the views of any one school was partly the result of his own sceptical leanings and partly a didactic principle."

  106. Schofield, Malcolm. 2002. "Cicero, Zeno of Citium, and the Vocabulary of Philosophy." In Le Style De La Pensée. Recueil De Textes En Hommage À Jacques Brunschwig, edited by Canto-Sperber, Monique and Pierre, Pellegrin, 412-428. Paris: Belles Lettres.

  107. Schrenk, Lawrence. 1994. "Cicero on Rhetoric and Philosophy: Tusculan Disputations I." Ancient Philosophy no. 14:355-360.

  108. Schütrumpf, Eckart. 1988. "Platonic Elements in the Structure of Cicero De Oratore Book 1." Rhetorica no. 6:237-258.

  109. Smethurst, Stanley Eric. 1957. "Cicero's Rhetorical and Philosophical Works: A Bibliographical Survey." Classical World no. 51:1-4.

    Second part: vol. 58 (1964), pp. 36-45; Third part: vol. 61 (1967), pp. 125-133.

  110. Spahlinger, Lothar. 2005. Tulliana Simplicitas. Zu Form Und Funktion Des Zitats in Den Philosophischen Dialogen Ciceros. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

  111. Strasburger, Hermann. 1990. Ciceros Philosophisches Spätwerk Als Aufruf Gegen Die Herrschaft Caesars. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

  112. Striker, Gisela. 1995. "Cicero and Greek Philosophy." Harvard Studies in Philology no. 97:53-61.

  113. Süss, Wilhelm. 1966. Cicero: Eine Einführung in Seine Philosophischen Schriften (Mit Ausschluss Der Staatsphilosophischen Werke). Wiesbaden: Steiner.

  114. Swain, Simon. 2002. "Bilingualism in Cicero? The Evidence of Code-Switching." In Bilingualism in Ancient Society. Language Contact and the Written Word, edited by Adams, J.N., Janse, Mark and Swain, Simon, 128-168. New York: Oxford University Press.

    "This chapter explores the problem of Roman Latin-Creek bilingualism in the Late Republic. There is an abundance of evidence to show that Romans at this time knew classical Greek literature well enough. Some of them, like Cicero, knew key parts of it extremely well. Cicero himself was able to compose Greek prose and verse and to deliver set speeches in Greek before a Greek audience. No one would deny that he could speak Greek well. It is a commonly held view that Cicero's peers were fluent in Greek and regularly used it in conversation with each other. There are, however, no grounds for the latter belief. This chapter places Cicero's choices against the general background and function of bilingualism in Rome."

  115. Tarán, Leonardo. 1987. "Cicero's Attitude Towards Stoicism and Skepticism in the De Natura Deorum." In Florilegium Colombianum. Essays in Honor of Paul Oskar Kristeller, edited by Selig, Karl-Ludwig and Somerville, Robert, 1-22. New York: Italica Press.

    Reprinted in: L. Tarán, Collected Papers (1962-1999), Ledien, Brill, 2001, pp. 455-478.

  116. Thorsrud, Harald. 2002. "Cicero on His Academic Predecessors: The Fallibilism of Arcesilaus and Carneades." Journal of the History of Philosophy no. 40:1-18.

  117. Watson, Gerald. 1971. "The Natural Law and Stoicism." In Problems in Stoicism, edited by Long, Anthony Arthur. London: Athlone Press.

    "The concept of natural law, although it had antecedents in Greek philosophy, was first given general expression by the Stoics. It was transmitted by Cicero to the Church Fathers and thence into medieval and modern philosophy."

  118. Wisse, Jakob. 2002. "De Oratore: Rhetoric, Philosophy, and the Making of the Ideal Orator." In Brill´S Companion to Cicero. Oratory and Rhetoric, edited by May, James M., 375-401. Leiden: Brill.

  119. Wood, Neal. 1988. Cicero's Social and Political Thought. Berkeley: University of California Press.