History of Logic | Raul Corazzon | e-mail: rc@ontology.co


Boethius' Logic and Metaphysics. An Annotated Bibliography


  1. "Boethius." 2004. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly no. 78:175-348.

    Contents: Siobhan Nash-Marshall: Editor's Introduction; Claudio Micaelli: Boethian Reflections on God: Between Logic and Metaphysics 181; Joseph W. Koterski: Boethius and the Theological Origins of the Concept of Person 203; Siobhan Nash-Marshall: God, Simplicity, and the Consolatio Philosophiae 225; Jonathan Evans: Boethius on Modality and Future Contingents 247; M.V. Dougherty: The Problem of Humana Natura in the Consolatio Philosophiae of Boethius 273; John R. Fortin: The Nature of Consolation in the Consolation of Philosophy 293; Paul J. Lachance: Boethius on Human Freedom 309; John Marenbon: Boethius and the Problem of Paganism 329-348.

  2. Arlig, Andrew W. 2005. A Study in Early Medieval Mereology: Boethius, Abelard, and Pseudo-Joscelin, Ohio State University.

    Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation (available on line).

    Chapter 3: Boethius and the early mereological tradition, pp. 62-140.

    "In what follows I will examine the mereological tradition founded by Aristotle and presented to the early medieval West by Boethius. Given the paucity of what was available from Aristotle's extensive opera, it is no surprise that some important concepts are not carried over to the early medieval period, or if they do appear, they often do so in a distorted form. Sometimes this omission and distortion is attributable to Boethius. Boethius' logical works are almost without exception introductory treatises. As one would expect from introductory textbooks, Boethius' treatment of mereology often glides over complexities, which a more advanced work would stop to address. Hence, Boethius' remarks about parts and wholes are often general and devoid of nuance.

    It is by no means clear that Boethius actually has a theory of parts and wholes. He might, as some of his contemporary interpreters have urged, be merely parroting remarks he finds in elementary, (probably) neoplatonic textbooks without worrying whether these remarks are consistent.49 I will not assume that this is the case from the start. Rather, I will attempt as best as I can to re-construct Boethius' metaphysics of mereology. This reconstruction will require that I piece together stray remarks, think through the specific examples that he gives, and generally extrapolate from an admittedly sparse collection of rules, examples and hints. My method carries the risk of yielding not Boethius' theory of parts and wholes, but rather a Boethian theory. But this is the same risk that Abelard, Pseudo-Joscelin, and all the thinkers of the early medieval period took when attempting to piece Boethius' remarks into a coherent metaphysics of mereology." (pp. 84-65).

  3. Ashworth, Earline Jennifer. 1989. "Boethius on Topics, Conditionals and Argument-Forms." History and Philosophy of Logic no. 10:213-225.

  4. Asztalos, Monika. 1993. "Boethius as a Transmitter of Greek Logic to the Latin West: The Categories." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology no. 95:367-407.

  5. ———. 2003. "Boethius on the Categories." In Boèce Ou La Chaîne Des Savoirs, edited by Galonnier, Alain, 195-205. Paris: Peeters Publishers.

  6. Barnes, Jonathan. 1981. "Boethius and the Study of Logic." In Boethius: His Life, Thought and Influence, edited by Gibson, Margaret, 73-89. Oxford: Blackwell.

  7. Berka, Karel. 1968. "Die Semantik Des Boethius." Helikon no. 8:454-459.

  8. ———. 1982. "Die Aussagenlogik Des Boethius." Philologus no. 126:90-98.

  9. Bidez, Jacques. 1923. "Boèce Et Porphyre." Revue Belge de Philosophie et d'Histoire no. 2:189-201.

    Repris en traducton allemande dans: Manfred Fuhrmann and Joachim Gruber (eds.) Boethius, Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1984 pp. 133-145.

  10. Bobzien, Susanne. 2002. "A Greek Parallel to Boethius De Hypotheticis Syllogismis." Mnemosyne no. 55:285-300.

  11. Brock, Stephen L. 2007. "La "Conciliazione" Di Platone E Aristotele Riguardo Alla Partecipazione Nell'essere. Osservazioni Sul Commento Di Tommaso D'Aquino Al De Hebdomadibus Di Boezio." Acta Philosophica.Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia no. 14.

    Sommario: 1. Il progetto boeziano e il commento di Tommaso al De hebdomadibus. 2. La questione dell'essere boeziano e tommasiano. 3. La partecipazione. 4. Ci può essere partecipazione con o senza Idee platoniche. 5. L'essere stesso partecipa ad una causa. 6. L'essere non si partecipa come un genere e comunque inerisce alle cose. 7. L'essere si partecipa secondo le categorie e l'essere simpliciter è l'essere sostanziale. 8. L'essere partecipato appartiene per se. 9. Conclusione.

    Abstract: Several features of St Thomas's commentary on the De hebdomadibus suggest that he was taking quite seriously Boethius's view concerning the fundamental harmony between the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle. The paper focuses on the commentary's treatment of the doctrine of participation in being (esse). There are several places where St Thomas seems to be working quietly to bring the doctrine in line with Aristotelian ontology. These have a bearing on the much disputed question of the relation between St Thomas and Boethius on the distinction between esse and id quod est.

  12. ———. 2007. "Harmonizing Plato and Aristotle on Esse: Thomas Aquinas and the De Hebdomadibus." Nova et Vetera no. 5:465-494.

  13. Brosch, Hermann Josef. 1931. Der Seinsbegriff Bei Boethius Mit Besonderes Berücksichtigung Der Beziehung Von Sosein Und Dasein. Inbsburck: Felizian Rauch.

  14. Casey, Gerard. 1987. "An Explication of the De Hebdomadibus of Boethius in the Light of St. Thomas Commentary." Thomist no. 51:419-434.

  15. Chadwick, Henry. 1981. Boethius. The Consolations of Music, Logic, Theology, and Philosophy. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  16. Conti, Alessandro D. 1983. "La Teoria Degli Ad Aliquid Di Boezio: Osservazioni Sulla Terminologia." In Atti Del Convegno Internazionale Di Storia Della Logica, edited by Abrusci, Michele, Casari, Ettore and Mugnai, Massimo, 247-252. Bologna: CLUEB.

  17. Cooper, Lane, ed. 1928. A Concordance of Boethius. The Five Theological Tractates and the Consolation of Philosophy. Cambridge: Medieval Academy of America.

  18. Correia, Manuel Antonio. 2009. "The Syllogistic Theory of Boethius." Ancient Philosophy no. 29:391-405.

  19. ———. 2012. "Boethius on the Square of Opposition." In Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition, edited by Béziau, Jean-Yves and Jacquette, Dale, 41-52. Baserl: Birkhäuser.

    "This article intends to reconstruct the textual tradition of the square of oppositions from the earliest textual sources just as treated in Boethius’ commentaries on Aristotle’s De Interpretatione and his treatises on syllogistic, De syllogismo categorico and Introductio ad syllogismos categoricos. The research discovers two different tracks. One way comes from Plato’s Sophist and Aristotle’s De Interpretatione, and the aim is to distinguish contrariety from contradiction. The second influence also starts from Aristotle, but now in connection with his Prior Analytics and its commentaries and treatises on categorical syllogistic, where the aim is to show the square as one of the three main chapters of the complete theory of categorical logic. I suggest that this double ingredient has accompanied the development of the square from the very original beginning of logic."

  20. Corrigan, Kevin. 1990. "A New Source for the Distinction between Id Quod Est and Esse in Boethius' De Hebdomadibus." Studia Patristica no. 18:133-138.

    Papers of the 1983 Oxford Patristic Conference

  21. Courcelle, Pierre. 1948. Les Lettres Grecques En Occident. De Macrobe À Cassiodore. Paris: Boccard.

    Nouvelle édition revue et augmentée (première édition 1943).

    English translation: Late Latin writers and their Greek sources - Translated by Harry E. Wedeck - Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1969

  22. ———. 1967. La Consolation De Philosophie Dans La Tradition Littéraire. Antécédents Et Postérité De Boèce. Paris: Études augustiniennes.

  23. Craemer-Ruegenberg, Ingrid. 1969. Die Substanzmetaphysik Des Boethius in Den Opuscula Sacra. Köln: Gouder u. Hansen,.

  24. Dürr, Karl. 1951. The Propositional Logic of Boethius. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

    Contents: Introduction 1; I. The sources of "De Syllogismo Hypothetico" 4; II. The effects of Boethius' propositional logic in the early scholastic period 16; III. Choice of metascience and metalanguage 19; IV. Analysis of "De Syllogismo Hypothetico" 30; V. Analysis of the section of Bethius' Commentary on Cicero's Topics 66; Appendix by Norman M. Martin 74-79.

    "The text of the treatise "The Propositional Logic of Boethius" was finished in 1939. Prof. Jan Lukasiewicz wished at that time to issue it in the second volume of "Collectanea Logica"; as a result of political events, he was not able to carry out his plan.

    In 1938, I published an article in "Erkenntnis" entitled "Aussagenlogik im Mittelalter"; this article included the contents of a paper which I read to the International Congress for the Unity of Science in Cambridge, England, in 1938 (Cf. Erkenntnis, vol. 7, pp. 160-168). The subject matter of this paper touched upon that of the above-mentioned treatise. Recently an article of Mr. René van den Driessche, "Sur le 'de syllogismo hypothetico' de Boèce", was published in the journal "Methodos" (vol. I, no. 3, [1949]). Mr. van den Driessche referred in this article to the article on propositional logic in the Middle Ages, which had appeared in "Erkenntnis". This reminded me of my yet-unpublished treatise on the propositional logic of Boethius." (From the Preface)

  25. Ebbesen, Sten. 1973. "Manlius Boethius on Aristotle's Analytica Posteriora." Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Âge Grec et Latin no. 9:68-73.

    Reprinted in: S. Ebbesen, Greek-Latin Philosophical Interaction. Collected Essays of Sten Ebbesen Volume 1, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008, pp. 107-114.

  26. ———. 1981. "'Analyzing Syllogisms or Anonymus Aurelianensis Iii - the (Presumably) Earliest Extant Latin Commentary on the Prior Analytics, and Its Greek Model." Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Âge Grec et Latin no. 37:1-20.

    Reprinted in: S. Ebbesen, Greek-Latin Philosophical Interaction. Collected Essays of Sten Ebbesen Volume 1, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008, pp. 171-186.

  27. ———. 1987. "Boethius as an Aristotelian Scholar." In Aristoteles. Werk Und Wirkung. Paul Moraux Zum 65 Geburtstag Gewidmet - Band 2: Kommentierung, Uberlieferung, Nachleben, edited by Wiesner, Jürgen, 286-311. Berlin: de Gruyter.

    Reprinted as Boethius as an Aristotelian Commentator in: Richard Sorabji (ed.), Aristotle Transformed. The Ancient Commentators and Their Influence London, Duckworth, 1990, pp. 373-392.

  28. ———. 2005. "Boethius on the Metaphysics of Words." In Boèce Ou La Chaîne Des Savoirs, edited by Galonnier, Alain, 257-275. Louvain-la-Neuve: Peeters.

    Reprinted in: S. Ebbesen, Greek-Latin Philosophical Interaction. Collected Essays of Sten Ebbesen Volume 1, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2008, pp. 115-128.

  29. Elsässer, Michael. 1973. Das Person-Verständnis Des Boethius. Münster.

  30. Engels, Joseph. 1963. "Origine, Sens Et Survie Du Terme Boécien "Secundum Placitum"." Vivarium no. 1:87-114.

  31. Fuhrmann, Manfred, and Gruber, Joachim, eds. 1984. Boethius. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.

    Reprint of 23 essays published between 1923 and 1976.

    The third part is on Boethius's logical writings.

    III. Logische Schriften: Friedrich Solmsen: Boethius and the History of the "Organon" (1944) 127; Joseph Bidez: Boethius und Porphyrios (1923) 133; Lorenzo Minio-Paluello: Boethius als Übersetzer und Kommentator aristotelsicher Schriften (1957) 146-154; James Shiel: Boethius' Commentaries on Aristotle (1958) 155-186.

  32. Galonnier, Alain. 1997. ""Axiomatique" Et Théologie Dans Le De Hebdomadibus De Boèce." In Langages Et Philosophie. Hommage À Jean Jolivet, edited by Libera, Alain de, Elamrani-Jamal, Abdelali and Galonnier, Alain, 311-330. Paris: Vrin.

  33. ———, ed. 2005. Boèce Ou La Chaîne Des Savoirs. Louvain-la-Neuve: Peeters.

    Actes du Colloque International de la Fondation Singer-Polignac, Paris, 8-12 juin 1999.

    Préface by Roshdi Rashed; Introduction by Pierre Magnard.

  34. Gersh, Stephen. 1998. "Dialectical and Rhetorical Space: The Boethian Theory of Topics and Its Influence During the Early Middle Ages." In Raum Und Raumvorstellungen in Mittlelater, edited by Aertsen, Jan A. and Speer, Andreas, 391-401. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  35. Gibson, Margaret, ed. 1981. Boethius. His Life, Thought and Influence. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Henry Chadwick: Introduction 1; John Matthews: Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius 15; Helen Kirkby: The scholar and his public 44; Jonathan Barnes: Boethius and the study of logic 73; Patrick Osmund Lewry: Boethian logic in the medieval West 90; John Caldwell: The De institutione arithmetica and the De institutione musica 135; David Pingree: Boethius' geometry and astronomy 155; Alison White: Boethius in the medieval quadrivium 162; John R. S. Mair: The text of the Opuscula sacra 206; Margaret Templeton Gibson: The Opuscula sacra in the Middle Ages 214; Anna M. Crabbe: Literary design in the De consolatione philosophiae 237; David Ganz: A tenth-century drawing of Philosophy visiting Boethius 275; Jacqueline Beaumont: The Latin tradition of the De consolatione philosophiae 278; Christopher Page: The Boethian metrum Bella bis quinis: a new song from Saxon Canterbury 306; Alastair J. Minnis: Aspects of the medieval French and English traditions of the De consolatione philosophiae 312; Nigel F. Palmer: Latin and vernacular in the northern European tradition of the De consolatione philosophiae 362; Anthony Grafton; Epilogue: Boethius in the Renaissance 410; Malcolm R. Godden: King Alfred's Boethius 419; Malcolm Beckwith Parkes: A Note on MS Vatican, Bibl. Apost., lat. 3363 425; Diane K. Bolton: Illustrations in manuscripts of Boethius' works 428-437.

  36. ———. 1982. "Boethius in the Carolingian Schools." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society no. 32:32-56.

  37. Gracia, Jorge J.E. 1981. "Boethius and the Problem of Individuation in the Commentaries on the Isagoge." In Atti Del Congresso Di Studi Boeziani (Pavia, 5-8 Ottobre 1980), edited by Obertello, Luca, 109-182. Roma: Herder.

  38. Green-Pedersen, Niels Jørgen. 1984. The Tradition of the Topics in the Middle Ages. The Commentaries on Aristotle's and Boethius' 'Topics'. Münich: Philosophia Verlag.

    Contents: Preface 9; Part I. The Sources of the Medieval Doctrine of the Topics 11; A. Aristotle's Works on the Topics 11; B. Boethius' Works on the Topics 39; Part II. The Medieval Approach to the Sources 83; A. Aristotle's Topics 85; B. Boethius' De Differentiis Topicis 123; C. The University Teaching 127; Part II. The Doctrine of the Topics in the Middle Ages 135; A. Introductory 135; B. The earliest Texts 139; C. The 12th Century 163; D. The 13th Century 223; E. The Topics and the Theory of Consequences 265; F. The 14th Century 301; G. The 15th Century 321; Part IV. General Conclusion 345; Appendices 345; Appendix 1: Selection of Unprinted Texts 347; Appendix 2. List of Commentaries 381; A. Commentaries on Aristotle's Topics 383; B. Commentaries on Boethius' De Differentiis Topicis 418; References 433; Index 449; Summary in Danish 455-459.

  39. Gruber, Joachim. 1997. "Boethius 1925-1998." Lustrum no. 39:307-383.

    First part of a bibliography

  40. ———. 2006. Kommentar Zu Boethius De Consolatione Philosophiae. Berlin: de Gruyter.

    Second fully revised and extended edition (first edition 1978).

  41. Hadot, Pierre. 1959. "Un Fragment Du Commentaire Perdu De Boèce Sur Les Catégories D'Aristote Dans Le Codex Bernensis 363." Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Âge no. 26:11-27.

    Reprinted in: P. Hadot - Plotin, Porphyre. Études néoplatoniciennes - Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1999, pp. 383-410.

  42. ———. 1963. "La Distinction De L'être Et De L'étant Dans Le De Hebdomadibus De Boèce." In Die Metaphysik Im Mittelalter. Ihr Ursprung Und Ihre Bedeutung, edited by Wilpert, Paul, 147-153. Berlin: de Gruyter.

  43. ———. 1970. "Forma Essendi.Interprétation Philologique Et Interprétation Philosophique D'une Formule Di Boèce." Études Classiques no. 38:143-156.

  44. ———. 1985. "Les Commentaires De Boèce Et De Porphyre Sur Les Catégories D'Aristote." nnuaire de l'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes.V Section, Sciences Religieuses no. 93:335-337.

  45. Hoenen, Maarten, and Nauta, Lodi, eds. 1997. Boethius in the Middle Ages. Latin and Vernacular Traditions of the Consolatio Philosophiae. Leiden: Brill.

  46. Huby, Pamela M. 1988. "Boethius Vindicates Cicero as a Logician." Liverpool Classical Monthly no. 13:60-61.

  47. Hudry, Françoise. 1997. "L'hebdomade Et Les Règles. Survivances Du Débat Scolaire Alexandrin." Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale.An International Journal on the Philosophical Tradition from Late Antiquity to the Late Middle Ages no. 8:319-337.

  48. Huh, Min-Jun. 2006. "Le Primier Commentaire De Boèce Sur L'isagoge De Porphyre: Condidérations Générales." In Colloquia Aquitana Ii. Boèce: L'homme, Le Philosophe, Le Scientifique, Son Oeuvre, Son Rayonnement. Vol. I, edited by Humphrey, Illo, 363-381. Paris: Éditions Le Manuscrit.

    Chapitre 6.

  49. Humphrey, Illo, ed. 2006. Colloquia Aquitana Ii. Boèce: L'homme, Le Philosophe, Le Scientifique, Son Oeuvre, Son Rayonnement. Paris: Éditions Le Manuscrit.

    Deux volumes.

  50. Isaac, Jean. 1953. Le Peri Hermeneias En Occident De Boèce À Saint Thomas. Histoire Littéraire D'un Traité D'Aristote. Paris: Vrin.

  51. Jolivet, Jean. 2003. "Quand Boèce Aborde Porphyre." In Boèce Ou La Chaîne Des Savoirs, edited by Galonnier, Alain, 229. Paris: Peeters Publishers.

  52. Kaylor Jr, Noel Harold, and Phillips, Philip Edward, eds. 2012. A Companion to Boethius in the Middle Ages. Leiden: Brill.

    Contents: Acknowledgments; Preface; Noel Harold Kaylor, Jr.: Introduction: The Times, Life, and Work of Boethius; Stephen C. McCluskey: Boethius's Astronomy and Cosmology; Rosalind C. Love: The Latin Commentaries on Boethius's De consolatione philosophiae from the 9th to the 11th Centuries; Jean-Yves Guillaumin: Boethius's De institutione arithmetica and its Influence on Posterity; Siobhan Nash-Marshall: Boethius's Influence on Theology and Metaphysics to c. 1500; John Patrick Casey: Boethius's Works on Logic in the Middle Ages; Paul E. Szarmach: Boethius's Influence in Anglo-Saxon England: The Vernacular and the De consolatione philosophiae; Christine Hehle: Boethius's Influence on German Literature to c. 1500; Glynnis M. Cropp: Boethius in Medieval France: Translations of the De consolatione philosophiae and Literary Influence; Dario Brancato: Readers and Interpreters of the Consolatio in Italy, 1300-1500; Ian Johnson: Making the Consolatio in Middle English; Mark T. Rimple: The Enduring Legacy of Boethian Harmony; Ann E. Moyer: The Quadrivium and the Decline of Boethian Influence; Fabio Troncarelli: Afterword: Boethius in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages; Philip Edward Phillips: Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius: A Chronology and Selected Annotated Bibliography; List of Contributors; Index of Manuscripts Cited; Index.

  53. King, Peter. 2007. "Boethius: The First of the Scholatics." Carmina Philosophiae no. 16:23-50.

  54. ———. 2011. "Boethius' Anti-Realist Arguments." Oxford Studes in Ancient Philosophy no. 40:381-401.

  55. Kretzmann, Norman. 1987. "Boethius and the Truth About Tomorrow's Sea Battle." In Logos and Pragma. Essays on the Philosophy of Language in Honour of Professor Gabriel Nuchelmans, edited by Rijk, Lambertus Marie de and Braakhuis, Henk A.G., 63-97. Nijmegen: Ingenium Publishers.

    Reprinted in: D. Blank, N. Kretzmann (eds.) - Ammonius on Aristotle On Interpretation 9 with Boethius on Aristotle On Interpretation 9 - London, Duckworth, 1998, pp. 24-52

  56. Lambert, Michel. 2005. "Nouveaux Éléments Pour Une Étude De L'authenticitè Boécienne Des Opuscula Sacra." In Boèce Ou La Chaîne Des Savoirs, edited by Galonnier, Alain, 171-191. Louvain-la-Neuve: Peeters.

  57. Levet, Jean-Pierre. 1988. "Philologie Et Logique: Boèce Traducteur Des Premiers Chapitres Du Livre I Des Analytica Priora D'Aristote." Revue d'Histoire des Textes no. 18:1-62.

  58. Lewry, Osmond. 1981. "Boethian Logic in the Medieval West." In Boethius: His Life, Thought and Influence, edited by Gibson, Margaret, 90-134. Oxford: Blackwell.

  59. Libera, Alain de. 1999. L'art Des Généralités. Théories De L'abstraction. Paris: Aubier.

    Table: Introduction, 5; 1. Alexandre d'Aphrodise, 25; 2. Boèce, 159; 3. Pierre Abélard, 281; 4. Avicenne 499; Conclusion 609; Appendice: Textes traduits de l'arabe par Marc Geoffroy, 637;

    Index: Auteurs anciens et médiévaux, 683; Auteurs modernes, 687; Thèses, 693

  60. ———. 2005. "L'onto-Théo-Logique De Boèce: Doctrine Des Catégories Et Théorie De La Prédication Dans Le De Trinitate." In Les Catégories Et Leur Histoire, edited by Bruun, Otto and Corti, Lorenzo, 175-222. Paris: Vrin.

  61. MacDonald, Scott. 1988. "Boethius Claim That All Substance Are Good." Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie no. 70:245-279.

  62. Magee, John. 1989. Boethius on Signification and Mind. Leiden: Brill.

    "The following is a study of Boethius' thought on signification which attempts to situate that thought historically and to evaluate it philosophically. Its justification is found in the present lack of any systematic examination of the subject,(1) and in the intrinsic importance of that subject for the history of later ancient and especially of medieval thought. It is frequently the case that medievalists will have read Boethius' philosophical works with an eye only to subsequent developments; those classicists who bother with him at all will probably have done so out of an interest (one which shows signs of increasing) in investigating the very last stages in the history of ancient learning. That Boethius has sometimes run afoul of misunderstandings originating on both sides of the academic fence can, I believe, be explained in part by the fact that his work as both commentator and translator sets him somewhat apart in the history of ancient commentary on Aristotle. As a commentator, he has tended to be ignored by those classical scholars who are accustomed to the massive and weighty Greek commentaries from the likes of Alexander (late 2nd-early 3rd c. AD) and Simplicius (6th c. AD). As a translator, he has sometimes obscured, for the medievalists not working in the Greek tradition of commentary (as indeed for the many medieval writers who depended upon his translations), the prehistory of certain ideas expressed during the course of his commentaries on the texts of what in the Middle Ages came to be known as the logica vetus." p. 1

    (1) There are two valuable studies by L.M. De Rijk, as well as a short article by K. Berka. Beyond this, however, very little has come to my attention. [De Rijk 1981 and 1988, Berka 1968]

  63. ———. 1994. "The Text of Boethius' De Divisione." Vivarium no. 32:1-50.

  64. ———. 2010. "On the Composition and Sources of Boethius' Second Peri Hermeneias Commentary." Vivarium no. 48:7-54.

  65. Maioli, Bruno. 1978. Teoria Dell'essere E Dell'esistente E Classificazione Delle Scienze in M. S. Boezio. Roma: Bulzoni.

  66. Malcolm, John. 1986. "Some Consolation for Boethius." New Scholasticism no. 60:35-45.

  67. Marenbon, John. 1998. "Boethius: From Antiquity to the Middle Ages." In Routledge History of Philosophy. Volume Iii: Medieval Philosophy, edited by Marenbon, John, 11-28. New York: Routledge.

  68. ———. 2003. Boethius. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  69. ———. 2005. Le Temps, L'éternité Et La Prescience De Boèce À Thomas D'Aquin. Paris: Vrin.

    Chapitre II: Boèce pp. 21-54.

  70. ———, ed. 2009. The Cambridge Companion to Boethius. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Contents: List of contributors XI; List of abbreviations of Boethius' works XIV; List of abbreviations XV; John Marenbon: Introduction: reading Boethius whole 1;

    Part I. Before the Consolation 11;

    1. John Moorhead: Boethius' life and the world of late antique philosophy 13; 2. Sten Ebbesen: The Aristotelian commentator 34; 3. Christopher J. Martin: The logical textbooks and their influence 56; 4. Margaret Cameron: Boethius on utterances, understanding and reality 85; 5. David Bradshaw: The Opuscula sacra: Boethius and theology 105; 6. Andrew Arlig: The metaphysics of individuals in the Opuscula sacra 129; 7. Christophe Erismann: The medieval fortunes of the Opuscula sacra 155;

    Part II The Consolation 179;

    8. John Magee: The Good and morality: Consolatio 2-4 181; 9. Robert Sharples: Fate, prescience and free will 207; 10. Danuta Shanzer: Interpreting the Consolation 228; 11. Lodi Nauta: The Consolation: the Latin commentary tradition, 800-1700 255; 12. Winthrop Wetherbee: The Consolation and medieval literature 279;

    Appendix. John Magee and John Marenbon: Boethius' works 303; Bibliography: 311; Index: References to Boethius' works 340; General index 343-356

  71. Marshall, David J. 2002. "The Argument of De Hebdomadibus." In Die Normativität Des Wirklichen., edited by Buchheim, Thomas, Schönberger, Rolf and Schweidler, Walter, 35-73. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

  72. Martin, Christopher J. 1987. "Embarrassing Arguments and Surprising Conclusions in the Development of Theories of the Conditional in the Twelfth Century." In Gilbert De Poitiers Et Ses Contemporains: Aux Origines De La Logica Modernorum, edited by Jolivet, Jean and Libera, Alain de, 377-400. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

  73. ———. 1991. "The Logic of Negation in Boethius." Phronesis no. 36:277-304.

    "Boethius' de Hypotheticis Syllogismis is by far the most extensive account of the conditional and its logic to have survived from antiquity. A rather obscure and tedious work, it has puzzled commentators from Peter Abaelard to Jonathan Barnes. Most of the difficulties that they have had in extracting the principles of Boethian logic seem to me to follow from the assumption that what he offers is an account of the application of propositional operators to propositional contents. Though generally not made explicit by modern historians, the concepts of propositional content and propositional operation are nevertheless presupposed by the symbolic apparatus which they typically use to represent the claims of ancient and mediaeval logics. I will try to show that an examination of Boethius' theory of language forces us to give up the assumption that his logic is propositional and that when we do so his remarks on compound propositions turn out to be rather less mysterious than they have seemed."

  74. ———. 1999. "Non-Reductive Arguments from Impossible Hypotheses in Boethius and Philoponus." Oxford Studes in Ancient Philosophy no. 17:279-302.

  75. ———. 2011. "De Interpretatione 5-8: Aristotle, Boethius, and Abelard on Propositionality." In Methods and Methodologies. Aristotelian Logic East and West, 500-1500, edited by Cameron, Margaret and Marenbon, John, 207-228. Leiden: Brill.

  76. Martin, John N. 1989. "A Tense Logic for Boethius." History and Philosophy of Logic no. 10:203-212.

    Reprinted as Chapter 5 in: J. N. Martin - Themes in Neoplatonic and Aristotelian Logic. Order, Negation and Abstraction - Aldershot, Ashgate, 2004, pp. 53-63.

    "An interpretation in modal and tense logic is proposed for Boethius' reconciliation of God's foreknowledge with human freedom from The Consolation of Philosophy, Book V. The interpretation incorporates a suggestion by Paul Spade that God's special status in time be explained as a restriction of God's knowledge to eternal sentences. The argument proves valid, and the seeming restriction on omnipotence is mitigated by the very strong expressive power of eternal sentences."

  77. Masi, Michael, ed. 1981. Boethius and the Liberal Arts. A Collection of Essays. Bern: Peter Lang.

    Contents: Introduction 1; Myra L. Uhlfelder: The Role of the Liberal Arts in Boethius' Consolatio 17; Eleonore Stump: Boethius and Peter of Spain on the Topics 35; Fannie J. Lemoine: The Precious Style as Heuristic Device: The Function of Introductions to the Arts in Martianus Capella and Boethius 51; Pearl Kibre: The Boethian De Institutione Arithmetica and the Quadrivium in the Thirteenth Century University Milieu at Paris 67; Michael Masi: The Influence of Boethius De Arithmetica on Late Medieval Mathematics 81; Ubaldo Pizzani: The Influence of the De institutione musica of Boethius up to Gerbert D'Aurillac 97; Calvin M. Bower: The Role of Boethius's De institutione musica in the Speculative Tradition of Western Musical Thought 157; Julia Bolton Holloway: "The "Asse to the Harpe": Boethian Music in Chaucer 175; Menso Folkerts: The Importance of the Pseudo-Boethian Geometria during the Middle Age 187; Pierre Courcelle: Boethius, Lady Philosophy, and the Representations of the Muses 211-218.

  78. Matino, Giuseppina. 1995. "Nota Alla Traduzione Dell'organon Aristotelico Fatta Da Severino Boezio." Cuadernos de Filología Clásica.Estudios Latinos no. 8:171-180.

    "Throughout his translation of Aristotle's Organon, Boethius dealt with questions of exegesis, syntax, interpretation and lexical expression. He tried to obtain a perfect correspondence with the «veracity» of the translated text, being at the same time afraid of the stylistic traps that a too exact interpretation could bring along. He hoped to contribute to the progress of the Latin Literature by means of a complete translation of the philosophical works by Aristotle. However the mechanical closeness to the model brought in grammatical and syntactic forms that do not correspond to the Classical Latin syntax: the use of adjectives and/or periphrases which made the Greek text translatable into Latin, the coinage of new words, or the decal of Greek terms."

  79. McInerny, Ralph. 1990. Boethius and Aquinas. Washington: Catholic University of America Press.

    Contents: Preface IX-XIV; Introduction: Two Italian Scholars 1; Part One: The Art of the Commentary; 1. Commenting on Aristotle 33; 2. Altissimum negotium: Universals 61; Part Two: De trinitate; 3. Thomas Comments on Boethius 97; 4. Tres speculativae partes 121; 5. Metaphysics and Existence 148;

    Part Three: De hebdomadibus; 6. Survey of Interpretations 161; 7. The Exposition of St. Thomas 199; 8. More on the Good 232; Epilogue: Sine Thoma Boethius Mutus Esset 249; Appendix: Chronologies of Boethius and St. Thomas 255; Bibliography 259; Index 265-268.

    "The thesis of this book is simply stated: Boethius taught what Thomas said he taught and the Thomistic commentaries on Boethius are without question the best commentaries ever written on the tractates.

    Another aspect of the opposition Thomists have thought to find between Boethius and Aquinas has to do with the understanding of what Thomas himself means by the composition of esse and essence in created things. This book will not enter fully into that matter, only sufficiently to show that anyone who thinks Thomists are of one mind, or explanation, about the "real distinction" is grievously mistaken. That the diversity between esse and id quod est is self-evident is one of the great overlooked claims of De hebdomadibus and of Thomas's commentary on it.

    The book I have come to write, then, is a monograph on the relation between Boethius and his commentator. My thesis I have stated. I will be content if this book, by subjecting received opinion to severe scrutiny and criticism, opens up for reexamination the relation between St. Thomas Aquinas and his great predecessor and mentor Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius." p. XIV

  80. ———. 1991. "Saint Thomas on De Hebdomadibus." In Being and Goodness. The Concept of Good in Metaphysics and Philosophical Theology, edited by MacDonald, Scott, 74-97. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

  81. Micaelli, Claudio. 2005. "Il De Hebdomadibus Di Boezio Nel Panorama Del Pensieo Tardo-Antico." In Boèce Ou La Chaîne Des Savoirs, edited by Galonnier, Alain, 33-53. Louvain-la-Neuve: Peeters.

  82. Mignucci, Mario. 1987. "Boezio E Il Problema Dei Futuri Contingenti." Medioevo.Rivista di Storia della Filosofia Medievale no. 12:1-50.

  83. ———. 1989. "Truth and Modality in Late Antiquity: Boethius on Future Contingent Propositions." In Atti Del Convegno Internazionale Di Storia Della Logica. Le Teorie Della Modalità, edited by Corsi, Giovanna, Mangione, Corrado and Mugnai, Massimo, 47-78. Bologna: CLUEB.

    "As is well known, Aristotle's analysis of future contingents in De interpretatione, Chapter 9 has generated since ancient times a lot of discussion, which ranges from the interpretation of his own words to the philosophical meaning and adequacy of the solution proposed by him. Unfortunately, the former question is entailed by the latter and there is no agreement between scholars about the kind of answer that Aristotle gives to the question of determinism, despite the astonishing quantity of works dedicated to it. I would by no way like to be involved in the problem of Aristotle's interpretation. My task here is to illustrate the meaning and relevance of Boethius' analysis of future contingents, and I will consider his commentary on the De interpretatione for its own sake. In other words, I do not feel myself committed to evaluate the adequacy of Boethius' proposal with respect to Aristotle, even if, of course, he believed that his interpretation was faithful to the pages of the De interpretatione. Nor will I try to compare Boethius' solution with other solutions which have been proposed by ancient and modern interpreters who have tried to explain Aristotle's text. I will just consider one view different from that of Boethius, because Boethius himself discusses it, and his discussion is relevant to the understanding of his position." p. 47

    1. A bibliographical survey of the relevant books and papers until the year 1973 can be found in V. Celluprica, II capitolo 9 del De interpretatione di Aristotele. Rassegna di studi: 1930-1973, Bologna 1977. Further references are in D. Frede, "The-Sea Battle Reconsidered: A Defence of the Traditional Interpretation", Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 3 (1985), pp. 84-87 and J. Talanga, Zukunftsurteile und Fatum. Eine Untersuchung Über Aristoteles' De interpretatione 9 und Ciceros De fato mit einem Überblick Ober die spãtantiken Reimarmene-Lehre, Bonn 1986, pp. 169-185. The recent article of C. Kirwan, "Aristotle on the Necessity of the Present", Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 4 (1986), pp. 167-187 must be added.

  84. Minio-Paluello, Lorenzo. 1957. "Les Traductions Et Les Commentaires Aristoteliciens De Boèce." Studia Patristica, II: Text Und Untersuchungen no. 64:358-365.

    Reprinted in German translation in: Manfred Fuhrmann and Joachim Gruber (eds.) Boethius -- Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1984 pp. 146-153

  85. ———. 1972. Opuscula: The Latin Aristotle. Amsterdam: Hakkert.

  86. Nash, Peter W. 1950. "Giles of Rome on Boethius "Diversum Est Esse Et Id Quod Est"." Mediaeval Studies:57-91.

  87. Nash-Marshall, Siobhan. 2000. Participation and the Good. A Study in Boethian Metaphysics. New York: Crossroad.

  88. Nasti de Vincentis, Mauro. 1998. "La Validità Del Condizionale Crisippeo in Sesto Empirico E Boezio (Parte I)." Dianoia no. 3:45-75.

  89. ———. 1999. "La Validità Del Condizionale Crisippeo in Sesto Empirico E Boezio (Parte Ii)." Dianoia no. 4:11-43.

  90. ———. 2002. Logiche Della Connessività. Fra Logica Moderna E Storia Della Logica Antica. Bern: Haupt.

    Indice: Premessa 7; Introduzione 11; 1. L'interpretazione classica e le sue varianti 39; 2. La pars destruens: le difficoltà dell'interpretazione classica 69; 3. La pars construens: verso una nuova interpretazione 95; 4. Obbiezioni, risposte e conferme 123; 5. Implicazione crisippea e implicazione boeziana 151; 6. Considerazioni conclusive e problemi aperti 173; Appendice: La dottina boeziana della repugnantia - Scelta di testi 193; Riferimenti bibiografici 231-232.

  91. ———. 2006. "Boethiana. La Logica Stoica Nelle Testimonianze Di Boezio: Nuovi Strumenti Di Ricerca." Elenchos no. 27:377-407.

    "In view of the importance of Boethius' "In Ciceronis Topica" as a source for Stoic logic, argues for the constitution of an index of divergent readings between the editions of Orelli (Zurich 1833) and Migne, including those omitted by Stangl (1882). Such an index would show that while Orelli's edition is better, sometimes the reading of Migne is to be preferred. Includes considerations on the gradual Stoicization of Aristotelian syllogistics, on Boethius' reliability as a source for Stoic logic, and on the genuine editio princeps of Boethius' "De topicis differentiis" (Rome 1484, rather than Venice 1492."

  92. Obertello, Luca. 1974. Severino Boezio. Genova: Accademia Ligure di Scienze e Lettere.

    Vol. I: La vita; Vol. II: Bibliografia boeziana. Bibliografia generale

  93. ———, ed. 1981. Congresso Internazionale Di Studi Boeziani. Atti (Pavia, 5-8 Ottobre 1980). Roma: Editrice Herder.

  94. Patch, Howard Rollin. 1935. The Tradition of Boethius. A Study of His Importance in Medieval Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.

  95. Phillips, Philip Edward, ed. 2007. New Directions in Boethian Studies. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications.

  96. Pinzani, Roberto. 2003. La Logica Di Boezio. Milano: Franco Angeli.

  97. ———. 2008. "I Commenti Di Boezio a Isagoge, 1, 9-13." Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale.An International Journal on the Philosophical Tradition from Late Antiquity to the Late Middle Ages no. 19:53-87.

  98. Pozzi, Lorenzo. 1974. "Il Sillogismo Ipotetico Nella Dottrina Di Boezio." In Studi Di Logica Antica E Medievale, 75-102. Padova: Liviana.

  99. Prior, Arthur Noman. 1953. "The Logic of Negative Terms in Boethius." Franciscan Studies no. 13:1-6.

  100. Rijk, Lambertus Marie de. 1964. "On the Chronology of Boethius' Works on Logic. Part I." Vivarium no. 2:1-49.

    "The chronological order of Boethius' works appears to be a rather difficult problem. Hence, it is not surprising that the numerous attempts to establish it led the scholars to results which are neither all conclusive nor uniform. In this article I confine myself to Boethius' works on logic. Before giving my own contribution it would seem to be useful to summarize the results of preceding studies and to make some general remarks of a methodological nature.


    My conclusion from this survey is that the best we can do in order to establish approximately the chronological order of Boethius' works on logic is to start a careful and detailed examination of all our data on this matter. In doing so an analysis of their contents seems to be quite indispensable, no less than a thorough examination of doctrinal and terminological differences." pp. 1 and 4.

  101. ———. 1964. "On the Chronology of Boethius' Works on Logic. Part Ii." Vivarium no. 2:125-162.

    "We shall now sum up the results of our investigations. First some previous remarks. Our first table gives of nine of the works discussed the chronological interrelation, which can be established with a fair degree of certainty. The figures put after the works give the approximative date of their composition (the second one that of their edition); when printed in heavy types they are based on external data; the other ones are based on calculation.

    Table 1

    Boethius' birth about 480 A.D.

    In Porphyrii Isagogen, editio prima about 504-505

    In Syllogismis categoricis libri duo (= ? Institutio categorica) about 505-506

    In Porphyrii Isagogen, editio secunda about 507-509

    In Aristotelis Categorias (? editio prima) about 509-511

    In Aristotelis Perhemeneias, editio prima not before 513

    In Aristotelis Perhemeneias, editio secunda about 515-516

    De syllogismis hypotheticis libri tres between 516 and 522

    In Ciceronis Topica Commentaria before 522

    De topicis differentiis libri quattuor before 523

    Boethius' death 524

    The rest of the works discussed cannot be inserted in this table without some qualification. (...)

    We may establish the following table for the works not contained in our first table:

    Table 2

    Liber de divisione between 505 and 509

    possible second edition of the In Categorias after 515-516

    Translations of the Topica (and Sophistici Elenchi) and of the

    Analytica Priora and Analytica Posteriora not after 520

    Commentary on Aristotle's Topica before 523

    the so-called Introductio (? = In Priora Analytica Praedicanda) certainly after 513; probably c. 523

    Scholia on Aristotle's Analytica Priora first months of 523 at the latest"

    pp. 159-161 (notes omitted).

  102. ———. 1981. "Boèce Logicien Et Philosophe: Ses Positions Sémantiques Et Sa Métaphysique De L'être." In Atti Del Congresso Internazionale Di Studi Boeziani (Pavia, 5-8 Ottobre 1980), edited by Obertello, Luca, 141-156. Genova: Accademia Ligure di scienze e lettere.

    "Le grand historien Etienne Gilson a bien remarqué que c'est à propos du problème du Bien que la pensée de Boèce fut la plus personnelle et la plus féconde. Avec Platon et Saint Augustin, il identifie dans son opuscule Quomodo substantiae l'être au Bien (comme le Mal au non-être). Il est évident que dans l'opinion de Boèce la doctrine de l'être obtient une importance décisive comme base de la théorie du Bien. Aussi la solution du problème du Bien et du Mal fut esquissé dans sa métaphysique de l'être.

    L'identification de l'être et du Bien implique que pour tout ce qui est, c'est une seule et même chose d'être et d'être bon. Mais si les choses sont substantiellement bonnes, en quoi diffèrent-elles du Bien en soi, qui est Dieu? Dans cette question la problématique du Sophiste de Platon a dû revivre. On sait que dans cette dialogue Platon a essayé de resoudre le problème fondamental de l'être des choses périssables par une analyse vraiment pénétrante des notions de "Même" (tauton) et "Autre" (heteron).

    Il me semble que Boèce fait une chose comparable. Il n'est pas étonnant qu'il commence (dans De hebdomadibus = Quomodo substantiae etc.; voir l'edition de Stewart-Rand) ses exposés approfondis sur la notion de l'être par l'axiome qui a dû provoquer tant de commentaires pendant le moyen âge: diversum est esse et quit quod est (II 28-30: "il ya diversité entr' être et ce qui est"). Cette formule, qui est valable pour tout être composé concerne la différence ontologique entre l'élément constitutif, ou la forme, de tout être composé d'un côté, et la chose elle-même, ou le tout établi par cette forme, de l'autre. Le tout doit son être à l'élément constitutif qui est la forme substantielle, sans laquelle il n'est pas du tout. Cependant la question sur son essence ne peut pas être resolue en désignant cette forme. (...)

    Il semble être utile de prendre au sérieux la suggestion des commentateurs médiévaux et d'entreprendre la réponse à notre question du point de vue sémantique. Je propose de discuter d'abord (1) la notion de qualitas chez Boèce (2), ensuite son modèle sémantique (3), et ses idées sur le rôle (logico-sémantique) du nom et du verbe (4-5); enfin la signification exacte de sa notion de l'être (esse) sera discutée (6) et éclarcie en mettant en lumière le but et la méthode du traité Quomodo substantiae (7)." pp. 141-142 (Notes omitted).

  103. ———. 1988. "On Boethius' Notion of Being. A Chapter of Boethian Semantics." In Meaning and Inference in Medieval Philosophy. Studies in Memory of Jan Pinborg, edited by Kretzmann, Norman, 1-29. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Reprinted as chapter I in: Through language to reality: studies in medieval semantics and metaphysics.

    "From Parmenides onwards, ancient and medieval thought had a special liking for metaphysical speculation. No doubt, speculative thought was most influentially outlined by Plato and Aristotle. However, what the Christian thinkers achieved in metaphysics was definitely more than just applying and adapting what was handed down to them. No student of medieval speculative thought can help being struck by the peculiar fact that whenever fundamental progress was made, it was theological problems which initiated the development. This applies to St Augustine and Boethius, and to the great medieval masters as well (such as Anselm, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus). Their speculation was, time and again, focused on how the notion of being and the whole range of our linguistic tools can be applied to God's Nature (Being).

    It is no wonder, then, that an inquiry into Boethius's notion of being should be concerned, first and foremost, with his theological treatises, especially De hebdomadibus.


    My final section aims at showing how Boethius's notion of being is clearly articulated in accordance with his semantic distinctions. This is most clearly seen in the main argument of De hebdomadibus where they may be actually seen at work.

    As is well known, the proper aim of De hebdomadibus is to point out the formal difference between esse and esse bonum, or in Boethius's words: 'the manner in which substances are good in virtue of their being, while not yet being substantially good' (38.2-4). Its method consists in a careful application of certain formal distinctions, viz.:

    (a) The distinction between an object 'when taken as a subsistent whole and id quod est = the constitutive element which causes the object's actually' being; it is made in Axiom II and used in Axiom IV.

    (b) The distinction (closely related to the preceding one) obtaining between the constitutive element effecting the object's actual being (forma essendi, or ipsum esse) and the object's actuality as such (id quod est or ipsum est); it is made in Axioms VII and VIII.

    (c) The distinction between esse as 'pure being' (= nihil aliud praeter se habens admixtum), which belongs to any form, whether substantial or incidental, and id quod est admitting of some admixture (lit. 'something besides what it is itself'); it is made in Axiom IV and in fact implies the distinction between esse simpliciter and esse aliquid.

    (d) The distinction between 'just being some thing', tantum esse aliquid, and 'being something qua mode of being'. It is made in Axiom V and used in Axiom VI and is in fact concerned with a further distinction made within the notion of id quod est. It points out the differences between the effect caused by some form as constitutive of being some thing and that caused by the main constituent (forma essendi) which causes an object's being simpliciter.

    (e) The distinction between two different modes of participation, one effecting an object's being subsistent, the other its being some thing, where the 'some thing' (aliquid) refers to some (non-subsistent) quality such as 'being white', 'being wise', 'being good', etc.

    The application of these distinctions enables Boethius to present a solution to the main problem: although the objects (ea quae sunt, plural of id quod est) are (are good) through their own constitutive element, being (being good), nevertheless they are not identical with their constitutive element nor (a fortiori) with the IPSUM ESSE (BONUM ESSE) of which their constituent is only a participation." pp. 1 and 22-23.

  104. ———. 2003. "Boethius on De Interpretatione (Ch. 3): Is He a Reliable Guide?" In Boèce Ou La Chaîne Des Savoirs, edited by Galonnier, Alain, 207-227. Paris: Peeters Publishers.

    "There can be no doubt whatsoever about Boethius's exceptional merits for transmitting Aristotle's logic to us. But while 'Aristotelian' logic is in many respects synonymous with 'Aristotelico-Boethian' logic, the question can be raised whether Aristotle himself was an 'Aristotelian'. To give just one example: from Lukasiewicz onwards there has been much debate among scholars about the telling differences between traditional syllogistic and that of the Prior Analytics. (1)

    In this paper I intend to deal with two specimens of Boethius's way of commenting upon Aristotle's text. They are found in his discussion of De interpretatione, chapters 2 and 3, which present Aristotle's views of ónoma and rhema. (2) One concerns the semantics of indefinite names, the other that of isolated names and verbs." p. 227

    (1) Jan Lukasiewicz, Aristotle's Syllogistic from the Standpoint of Modern Formal Logic, Oxford, 1951. G. Patzig, Aristotle's Theory of the Syllogism. A logico-philological study of Book A of the Prior Analytics, Dordrecht, 1969.

    (2) Rhema properly stands for 'what is said of', including not only our 'verb' but also adjectives, when used in attributive position. One should realise, however, that 'verb' refers to a word class, rather than a semantic or syntactical category, as rhema does.


    "Conclusion. Returning now to Boethius' manner of commenting upon Aristotle's texts, the following points can be made:

    [1] In the wake of Ammonius, (3) Boethius explains [De int.] 16b22-25 on the apophantic level, i.e. in terms of statement-making, instead of framing significative concepts, i.e. on the onomastic level.

    [2] Whereas in Ammonius' report of the predecessors, Alexander and Porphyry, as well as his own exposition of the issue, there are many clues to the previous alternative reading and interpretation on the onomastic level, Boethius does not even refrain from cleansing the text (including his 'quotations', by changing, at any occurrence, 'ens' into 'est'.

    [3] In doing so, Boethius decisively influenced the commentary tradition on account of the purport of De int. 3, 16b19-25. He effectively contributed to the common verdict on this paragraph in terms of 'a curious medley'.

    [4] As far as the semantics of the indefinite verb (3, 16b14-15) is concerned, Boethius' apparently adhering to the so-called 'Ammonii recensio' was far less disastrous for the common understanding of Aristotle on this score, and, in effect, merely provided us with some stimulating Medieval discussions of the semantics of term infinitation.

    [5] Finally by way of speculative surmise, it might be suggested that both the fact that Boethius dealt with the 'Ammonii recognise' without reading it in his lemma of 16b14-15, as well as his rather ruthlessly interfering in the quotations of the pre-Ammonian sources, should make it more plausible that Boethius had extensive, but incomplete marginal notes to his Greek text of Aristotle at his disposal, rather than a full copy of Ammonius' commentary (or those of other Greek commentators).

    To comment upon Aristotle's work naturally includes developing his lore. But nothing can ever guarantee that this will happen ad metem auctoris. (4)"

    (3) It is unmistakably plain that in De int. ch. 3, Boethius is strongly influenced by what he read in Ammonius (or in marginal notes on Ammonius' view).

    (4) Cf. the interesting paper on this subject by Frans A.J. de Haas, "Survival of the Fittest? Mutations of Aristotle's Method of Inquiry in Late Antiquity" (forthcoming). (Conference: The Dynamics of Natural Philosophy in the Aristotelian Tradition (and beyond), Nijmegen, 16-20 August 1999.)

  105. Schlapkohl, Corinna. 1999. Persona Est Naturae Rationabilis Individua Substantia. Boethius Und Die Debatte Über Der Personbegriff. Marburg: Elwert.

  106. Schrimpf, Gangolf. 1966. Die Axiomenschrift Des Boethius (De Hebdomadibus) Als Philosophisches Lehrbuch Des Mittelalters. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

  107. Shiel, James. 1957. "Boethius and Andronicus of Rhodes." Vigiliae Christianae no. 11:179-185.

  108. ———. 1958. "Boethius' Commentaries on Aristotle." Mediaeval and Renaissance Studies no. 4:217-244.

    Reprinted in: R. Sorabji - Aristotle transformed. The Ancient Commentators and their influence - London, Duckworth, 1990, pp. 349-372 and in: Manfred Fuhrmann and Joachim Gruber (eds.) Boethius, Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1984 pp. 155-186.

  109. ———. 1974. "Boethius and Eudemus." Vivarium no. 12:14-17.

  110. ———. 1982. "A Recent Discovery. Boethius' Notes on the Prior Analytics." Vivarium no. 20:128-141.

  111. ———. 1984. "A Set of Greek Reference Signs in the Florentine Ms. Of Boethius' Translation of the Prior Analytics." Scriptorium no. 38:327-342.

  112. ———. 1987. "The Greek Copy of Porphyrios' Isagoge Used by Boethius." In Aristoteles. Werk Und Wirkung. Paul Moraux Zum 65 Geburtstag Gewidmet - Band 2: Kommentierung, Uberlieferung, Nachleben, edited by Wiesner, Jürgen, 312-340. Berlin: de Gruyter.

  113. Solère, Jean-Luc. 2005. "Bien, Cercles Et Hebdomades: Formes Et Raisonnement Chez Boèce Et Proclus." In Boèce Ou La Chaîne Des Savoirs, edited by Galonnier, Alain, 55-110. Louvain-la-Neuve: Peeters.

  114. Solmsen, Friedrich. 1944. "Boethius and the History of the Organon." American Journal of Philology no. 65:69-74.

    Reprinted in: F. Solmsen - Kleine Schriften II. Hildesheim,. Olms, 1967 pp. 38-43 and in: Manfred Fuhrmann and Joachim Gruber (eds.) Boethius, Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1984 pp. 127-132

  115. Speca, Anthony. 2001. Hypothetical Syllogistic and Stoic Logic. Leiden: Brill.

    Contents: Acknowledgments VII; Abstract IX; Preface XI-XIII; 1. The Aristotelian background 1; 2. The Greek Commentators on Aristotle 35; 3. Boethius: On hypothetical syllogisms 67; 4. Boethius: On Cicero's Topics 101; References 135; General index 139; Index locorum 141

  116. Striker, Gisela. 1973. "Zur Frage Nach Der Quellen Von Boethius' De Hypotheticis Syllogismis." Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie no. 55:70-75.

  117. Stump, Eleonore. 1974. "Boethius Works on the Topics." Vivarium no. 12:77-93.

  118. ———. 1981. "Boethius' Theory of Topics and Its Place in Early Scholastic Logic." In Congresso Internazionale Di Studi Boeziani. Atti (Pavia, 5-8 Ottobre 1980), edited by Obertello, Luca, 249-262. Roma: Editrice Herder.

  119. Suto, Taki. 2009. "Logic and Grammar in Boethius: A Logical Analysis of the Parts of Speech." In The Word in Medieval Logic, Theology and Psychology. Acts of the Xiiith International Colloquium of the Société Internationale Pour L'étude De La Philosophie Médiévale, Kyoto, 27 September - 1 October 2005, edited by Shimizu, Tetsuro and Burnett, Charles, 65-80. Turnhout: Brepols.

  120. ———. 2011. Boethius on Mind, Grammar and Logic. A Study of Boethius' Commentaries on Peri Hermeneias. Leiden: Brill.

    Abstract: "Anicius Manlius Seuerinus Boethius (c.480-c.525) translates Aristotle's Peri hermeneias (otherwise known as De interpretatione) in Latin and writes the first Latin commentary on the work. This dissertation intends to be a philosophical introduction to his commentaries on Peri hermeneias, principally to his second commentary on Peri hermeneias, a work that has not been well studied despite its significant role in the history of logic as well as in the Aristotlelian tradition of philosophy.

    I discuss how Boethius treats words, mind, and things; and I consider the relationships among them in the commentaries. I furnish discussions especially from the following two perspectives, which have made fundamental issues of debates in contemporary discussions of logic and the philosophy of languages: (i) the relationship between the language in logic and the mind and (ii) the relationship between logic and the grammar of natural languages.

    In saying that spoken words principally signify thoughts and that there are a noun and a verb in the mind, Boethius may appear to maintain the idea that a logical language ultimately grounds itself upon psychological phenomena. In employing the noun-verb distinction widely in his discussions, he may also appear to conflate the grammar of a natural language with logic. I argue, however, that Boethius neither holds the view that the language is reduced into psychological phenomena nor conflates between the grammar and logic. Thoughts have their foundations in reality, and the intentionality of

    thoughts is obtained in the interaction between the mind and the language. When he calls "a noun," "a verb" or "a conjunction," he does not classify them by virtue of grammatical functions but by virtue of the functions of signification.

    Throughout the discussions, critically assessing past interpretations of Boethius' commentaries, I argue that Boethius does not misconstrue Aristotle to the extent that some scholars claimed him to have done under the influences of the Stoics and Neoplatonism. Making rather successful exegeses of Aristotle's work, Boethius is not subjected to the criticisms that his views on language are too naive to be considered seriously."

  121. Sweeney, Eileen C. 2006. Logic, Theology, and Poetry in Boethius, Abelard, and Alan of Lille: Words in the Absence of Things. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Chapter 2: Abelard: a twelfth-century hermeneutics of suspicion pp. 63-126.

  122. Tisserand, Axel. 2008. Pars Theologica. Logique Et Théologie Chez Boèce. Paris: Vrin.

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